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Speisman et al (1964) Observational Study Cheat Sheet by

Authors

Joseph Speisman, Richard Lazarus, Arnold Markoff, Les Davison

Hypoth­esi­s/Null Hypothesis

Partic­ipants’ emotional reactions will differ in the different stimulus
Emotional reactions will not differ

Results

Trauma soundtrack increased stress compared to control. Denial and Intell­ect­ual­ization less stress than contro­l//­lower heart rate

Ethics­/Co­ntr­ove­rsies

Emotional trauma may be inflicted upon the partic­ipants Lots of deception Very little informed consent During a time when many unethical studies were conducted

Effect­iveness

The results suggest that cognitive appraisal can be modified to effect emotional stress Trauma track raised stress levels The ego track and the intell­ect­ual­ization track that focused on WHY this ritual was happening and what it did lowered the stress SUPPORTS HYPOTHESIS
 

Title

Speisman et al.

Aim/pu­rpose

To invest­igate how manipu­lating ones cognitive appraisal could affect emotional experi­ences, through measuring the stress levels

Variables

Indepe­ndent Variable: Soundtrack used
Dependent Variable: Emotional Response

Conclusion

Indivi­duals interp­ret­ation affect emotional stress rather than the actual event

Social theory or school of thought

Based on Lazurus social appraisal theory A theory of emotion which implicates people’s personal interp­ret­ations of an event in determ­ining their emotional reaction Changing the music in this study changes how the partic­ipants perceive the event which alters their emotional response

Analysis of Study

a. Potential Confou­nding Variables : prior degree of comfort towards graphic images, demand charac­ter­istics of questi­onnaire b. Extraneous Variables :attention spent on film c. Controls : # partic­ipants in each stimulus, video, soundt­rack, method of conducting d. Blind Technique: Single (parti­cip­ants) e. Cultural Influences : non or fact all partic­ipants where American f. Influence of Gender: Both genders in study, males might have stronger connection
 

Research and Sampling Method

Research Method: Experi­mental
Sampling Method- Random, as college students formed one group and airlines execs formed another

Outline Procedure

Procedure a. Partic­ipants split into 4 groups (students and execs) i. Control (No soundt­rack) ii. Trauma Condition (Emphasis on pain) iii. Denial Condition (Happy Music) iv. Intell­ect­ual­ization Condition (Narration of Surgery) b. After each group watched a video, they were given a psycho­log­ical/ self-r­eport questi­onn­aire.

Studies that Support or challenge

Many studies conducted by Lazurus (Lazurus et al 1970, Lazurus and Launier 1978) show that cognitive appraisal is made up of learning, memory, percep­tion, and thought. These studies invest­igated other ways to change ones percep­tion.

Strengths and Limita­tions

Strengths
Weakness
Very controlled – reduces the amount­/impact of confou­nding variables
Weak ecological validity
Study is replicable
Results can only apply to males
 
Study is unethical

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