civilization was now characterized by the overly refined excesses of an elite class or eccentric geniuses
reversion to a state of lesser complexity on the part of an individual, species, society, or nation.
The New Woman
The “new woman” redefines what it means to be a woman; enters new areas of education and employment; demanding rights of citizenship; challenging the dominant social idea that women are inferior to men
Laughter and Capitulation
Think about the role of laughter: a shift made to understand humour about something, to capitulate into laughing at that thing; in this case, aristocratic snobbery
Colonialism vs Imperialism
imperialism involved the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metropolitan center ruling a distant territory, while colonialism refers to the implanting of settlements on a distant territory.
Macaulay's Minute on Education
Desire to stray away from traditional Indian education system Focus more on Western forms/styles of education i.e. poetry of Milton, metaphysics of Locke & physics of Newton What is meant by "literature" and "learned natives"? Value of Language Superiority of English
Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa (or the Race for Africa) was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New Imperialism period, between the 1880s and the start of World War I.
Tropes of Travel Literature
mpressions and experiences, including his often strongly expressed opinions of the customs, cities, food arrangements for travelers, and political and religious institutions of the places he visited
Novels were often serialized in monthly parts, making them more easily accessible and shared. Weekly or monthly segments often ended on a “cliff-hanger." Novels were thought to corrupt the working classes by giving them ideas above their station or encouraging them to emulate the life of fictional criminals.
home or family life, an essential part of Victorian living.
Link to Queen Victoria (the mother of England).
Capital and Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system and an ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit
Marriage and Marriage Laws
Under the law the married couple became one entity where the husband would represent this entity, placing him in control of all property, earnings and money.
changes in policing, both locally and globally, and the cultural discomfort that surrounded those changes. The public increasingly perceived military engagement across the globe as unsettling, and transformations of policing at home occurred as well.
Romantic Period (1st and 2nd generation)
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual. Second Gen - passion and emotion, incorporating so much more into intuitive thought, the supernatural, and exotic, greatly influence, also, by classical Greek and Roman literature. First Gen - saw the transition in France from pre-revolution, revolution, Napoleon
beginning of a change in the current ways of society and helping to improve the lives of the oppressed.
a system of belief among blacks chiefly of the British West Indies and the Guianas that is characterized by the use of magic ritual to ward off misfortune or to cause harm.
Considered trashy, Austen mocks the gothic characteristics (a fear of all that is foreign, unfamiliar to an English sensibility).
The Educational Novel
Revolve around the entry of a young, middle-class, well-bred person into society. Gendered differences – male characters go off to school and make a name for themselves. Women characters have to navigate courtship before making a good choice
one short (or unstressed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable.
one long or stressed syllable followed by one short or unstressed syllable.
two long (or stressed) syllables.
two short or unaccented syllables.
continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line
a break between words within a metrical foot
Longinus - noble literature, elevating. Burke - how text personally impacts the reader, terror Wordsworth - nature is a key element, immersion in terror and beauty
The Peterloo Massacre occurred at St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation.
Dramatique entertainment, practiced by nobility.
closing the gap between working class and wealthy, argued for suffrage for men over 21with "moral infuence" shift in social awareness of class conditions.
Prisons, symbols of tyranny. People would live here when poor. Shamed, loss of dignity, hard labour.
Emotions, tears, crying, attempts to convince reader through emotion rather than reason.
The Great Exhibition of 1851
Showcase of power, control, importance of Britain, Wealthy were educating the working class. An Ideological investment in empire and industry.