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ENGL3320 Cheat Sheet by

english     literature     romanticism     victorianism

Defini­tions

Decadence
civili­zation was now charac­terized by the overly refined excesses of an elite class or eccentric geniuses
Degene­ration
reversion to a state of lesser complexity on the part of an indivi­dual, species, society, or nation.
The New Woman
The “new woman” redefines what it means to be a woman; enters new areas of education and employ­ment; demanding rights of citize­nship; challe­nging the dominant social idea that women are inferior to men
Laughter and Capitu­lation
Think about the role of laughter: a shift made to understand humour about something, to capitulate into laughing at that thing; in this case, aristo­cratic snobbery
Coloni­alism vs Imperi­alism
imperi­alism involved the practice, the theory and the attitudes of a dominating metrop­olitan center ruling a distant territory, while coloni­alism refers to the implanting of settle­ments on a distant territory.
Macaulay's Minute on Education
Desire to stray away from tradit­ional Indian education system Focus more on Western forms/­styles of education i.e. poetry of Milton, metaph­ysics of Locke & physics of Newton What is meant by "­lit­era­tur­e" and "­learned native­s"? Value of Language Superi­ority of English
Scramble for Africa
The Scramble for Africa (or the Race for Africa) was the prolif­eration of confli­cting European claims to African territory during the New Imperi­alism period, between the 1880s and the start of World War I.
Tropes of Travel Literature
mpressions and experi­ences, including his often strongly expressed opinions of the customs, cities, food arrang­ements for travelers, and political and religious instit­utions of the places he visited
Reading culture
Novels were often serialized in monthly parts, making them more easily accessible and shared. Weekly or monthly segments often ended on a “cliff­-ha­nge­r." Novels were thought to corrupt the working classes by giving them ideas above their station or encour­aging them to emulate the life of fictional criminals.
Domest­icity
home or family life, an essential part of Victorian living.
Motherhood
Link to Queen Victoria (the mother of England).
Capital and Capitalism
Capitalism is an economic system and an ideology based on private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit
Marriage and Marriage Laws
Under the law the married couple became one entity where the husband would represent this entity, placing him in control of all property, earnings and money.
Detective Fiction
changes in policing, both locally and globally, and the cultural discomfort that surrounded those changes. The public increa­singly perceived military engagement across the globe as unsett­ling, and transf­orm­ations of policing at home occurred as well.
Romantic Period (1st and 2nd genera­tion)
a movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphas­izing inspir­ation, subjec­tivity, and the primacy of the indivi­dual. Second Gen - passion and emotion, incorp­orating so much more into intuitive thought, the supern­atural, and exotic, greatly influence, also, by classical Greek and Roman litera­ture. First Gen - saw the transition in France from pre-re­vol­ution, revolu­tion, Napoleon
French Revolution
beginning of a change in the current ways of society and helping to improve the lives of the oppressed.
Obeah
a system of belief among blacks chiefly of the British West Indies and the Guianas that is charac­terized by the use of magic ritual to ward off misfortune or to cause harm.
The Gothic
Considered trashy, Austen mocks the gothic charac­ter­istics (a fear of all that is foreign, unfamiliar to an English sensib­ility).
The Educat­ional Novel
Revolve around the entry of a young, middle­-class, well-bred person into society. Gendered differ­ences – male characters go off to school and make a name for themse­lves. Women characters have to navigate courtship before making a good choice
Iamb
one short (or unstre­ssed) syllable followed by one long (or stressed) syllable.
Trochee
one long or stressed syllable followed by one short or unstressed syllable.
Spondee
two long (or stressed) syllables.
Pyrrhic
two short or unaccented syllables.
Enjambment
contin­uation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line
Caesura
a break between words within a metrical foot
The Sublime
Longinus - noble litera­ture, elevating. Burke - how text personally impacts the reader, terror Wordsworth - nature is a key element, immersion in terror and beauty
Peterloo Massacre
The Peterloo Massacre occurred at St Peter's Field, Manche­ster, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000­–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parlia­mentary repres­ent­ation.
Masque
Dramatique entert­ain­ment, practiced by nobility.
Chartism
closing the gap between working class and wealthy, argued for suffrage for men over 21with "­moral infuen­ce" shift in social awareness of class condit­ions.
Workhouses
Prisons, symbols of tyranny. People would live here when poor. Shamed, loss of dignity, hard labour.
Sentim­ent­alism
Emotions, tears, crying, attempts to convince reader through emotion rather than reason.
The Great Exhibition of 1851
Showcase of power, control, importance of Britain, Wealthy were educating the working class. An Ideolo­gical investment in empire and industry.
 

Authors

Mary Wollst­one­craft
Vindic­ation of the Rights of Women
Maria Edgeworth
The Grateful Negro
Jane Austen
Northanger Abbey
Lord byron
Darkness, Prometheus
Percy Shelley
The Mass of Anarchy
John Keats
The Fall of Hyperion
Barrett Browning
The Cry of the Children
Friedrich Engels
The Conditions of the Working Class
Prince Albert
Speech Delivered at the Lord Mayors Banquet
Charles Dickens
The Nobel Savage, Dombey and Son
Thomas Carlyle
Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question
John Stuart Mill
The Negro Question
Frances Power Cobbe
Criminals, Idiots, Women and Minors
William Booth
In Darkest England
Mary Elizabeth Braddon
Lady Audley's Secret
Henry Stanley
Why Darkest England
Mary Kingsley
Travels in West Africa
Rudyard Kipling
The Man Who Would Be King
Oscar Wilde
The Importance of Being Ernest
Joseph Conrad
Heart of Darkness
 

Topics

First Generation Romant­icism
Second Generation Romant­icism
Early Victorian Social Reform
Mid Victorian Domest­icity and Otherness
Capital
Angels and Fallen Women
Imperial Expansion and Manly Identities
Decadence and Degene­ration
Imperial Reflec­tions

Essay Themes + Texts

Marriage
Northanger Abbey, Vindic­ation
Slavery
Grateful Negro, Noble Savage
Imperi­alism
The Man Who Would be King
Class
Speech Prince Albert, Great Exhibition
Victor­ianism
Lady Audley's Secret
Romant­icism
Northanger Abbey
Detective Fiction
Lady Audley's Secret
Serial Fiction
Dombey and Son,
Sensat­ional Novel
Lady Audley's Secret
Educat­ional Novel
Northanger Abbey
Apocalypse
Promet­heus, Darkness
Social Reform
The Cry of the children, Conditions of the Working class
Childhood
Florence in Dombey and Son.

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