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Chapter 4: Cultural Anthropology Cram Cheat Sheet by

anthropology

Terms and Defini­tions

Term
Defi­nit­ion
Anthro­pol­ogical Lingui­stics
Study of language (from anthro­pol­ogical view)
Ethnop­oetics
A method of recording narrative speech acts (includes oral poetry, stories). This helps to capture the poetic format and other perfor­mative elements that might be lost if only written.
Ethnog­raphy of speaking
The study of how people use spoken language in a particular cultural setting.
Call systems
Patterned sounds, utterances and movements of the body that express meaning.
Philology
Compar­ative study of ancient texts.
Proto-­lan­guage
A hypo­the­tical common ancestral language of two or more living languages.
Cognate words
Words in two languages that have the same sound shifts as other words; indicative of a common linguistic ancestry.
Descri­ptive Lingui­stics
Systematic analysis and descri­ption of a language's sound system and grammar.
Morphology
The structure of words and word formation in a language
Sociol­ing­uistics
The study of how socioc­ultural context and norms shape language use, and the effects of language use on society.
Linguistic relativity
The idea that people speaking different languages perceive or interpret the world differ­ently because of differ­ences in their languages.
Ethnos­cience
The study of how people classify things in the world, by consid­ering some range or set of meanings.
Creole
A language of mixed orgin that has developed from a complex blending of two parent languages and exists as a mother tongue for some part of the popula­tion.
Pidgin
A mixed language with a simp­lified grammer, borrowing vocabulary from on language but it's grammer from anothe­r.
Language ideology
Assump­tions that people make about the relative sophis­tic­ation and status of particular dialects and languages.

Paraph­rasing of Defini­tions

Term
Para­phrased Def.
Anthro­pol­ogical Lingui­stics
Study of language in anthro­pology.
Ethnog­raphy of speaking
Study of how people speak in cultural settings.
Ethnop­oetics
Recording (poetic, narrative) oral traditions in a way that maintains the perfor­mative aspect.
Call systems
Patterned sounds and body movements that express meaning.
Philology
compa­rative study of ancient texts.
Proto-­lan­guage
A hypot­het­ical common language of two or more living languages.
Cognate words
Words in two language that are pronounced (sometimes spelled) the same way.
Descri­ptive lingui­stics
Analysis of a language's phonetics and grammar.
Phonology
Pattern of sounds in a language
Morphology
Structure and syntax of words
Sociol­ing­ustics
Study of how society affect­s/s­hapes language
Linguistic Relativity
People speaking different languages perceive the world differ­ently because of the differ­ences in their languages.
Ethnos­cience
Study of how people classify things in the world.
Creole
The language developed from blending two existing languages.
Pidgin
Mixed language with simple grammar that borrows vocabulary from one language and grammar from another
Language Ideology
Assump­tions that people make about the status of particular dialects and languages.
 

Chapter 10: Race, Ethnicity and Class

 

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