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Biology Unit 3.1: Cell Processes Cheat Sheet by

whyamientrustedwiththis

Dehydr­ation Synthesis

Making a larger molecule by taking out water.

Monosa­cch­aride (glucose ==> C6H12O6)

*There is a carbon atom at each corner that is not shown
Simple sugar, one molecule of sugar. It can be used right away or stored. To store it, it has to be connected to other molecules using dehydr­ation synthesis.

Dehydr­ation Synthesis in Carboh­ydrates

Cells use dehydr­ation synthesis to link two glucose molecules together into malt­ose. Maltose is a disacc­haride which can be stored.

Polysa­cch­arides

Sugars are usually stored as poly­sac­cha­rides (many sugars) which is a sugar with more than two monosa­cch­arides. Also called starch

Review

Glucose
Monosa­cch­aride
Readily avalible
Can be immedi­ately turned to ATP
Glycogen
Polysa­cch­ari­de/­starch
Short-term use/st­orage
Takes a bit to turn to ATP
Fat
Lipid
Long-term use/st­orage
Takes a long time to turn to ATP
 

Hydrolysis

Splitting a larger molecule by adding water.

Carboh­ydrates

Sugars used to make/s­hor­t-term store energy.

Disacc­haride

A sugar with 2 monosa­cch­arides

Hydrolysis in Carboh­ydrates

Hydrolysis of a fructose molecule.
Hydrolysis is used to/when:
-break down food in the digestive system
-body needs quick/fast energy (simple sugars)

Body can run out of energy but still have fat because fat takes a long time to break into simple sugars.

Vocabulary

Organic Macrom­ole­cules
A molecule that has many elements, one of which is carbon. Ex: Proteins, carboh­ydr­ates, lipids
Simple Molecule
Ex: Water
Cellulose
A carboh­ydrate plants use in cell walls to provide support
Fiber
No calories; humans can't digest; helps you shit
Fructose
A monosa­cch­aride
Maltose
A disacc­haride consisting of two glucose molecule linked together that can be stored
Sucrose
A dissac­haride consisting of a glucose molecule and a fructose molecule
Starch
Another name for polysa­cch­arides
Glycogen
A polysa­cch­aride consisting of many glucose molecules linked together (sometimes hundreds). Extra sugar is stored as glycogen in the liver of the body as a short-term energy storage

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