r. 1829-1837. "Old Hickory" Democrat that believed Indians should be pushed west of the Mississippi River and African Americans should be freed and sent abroad or remain slaves. He was a nationalist that believed states should be the center of the government and that the government shouldn't interfere with personal lives.
He tried to answer the question of slavery in the west, he was responsible for the 1:1 ratio and let stated decide if they wanted to be free or not which started Bleeding Kansas. Under the Compromise of 1850, the fugitive slave act was proposed and angered the North and backfired on the South. Founder of the Whigs.
John C Calhoun
Spokesman for a slave plantation in the South. He defended slave plantations against anti-slavery. He protected the South from tariffs during the 1830s and had tariffs lowered for the next 10 years.
1840s & 1850s. Massachusetts senator. Anti-slavery leader and one of the founders of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery in new territories. He was later attacked by Andrew Butler's cousin, Preston Brooks, on the senate floors for efforts to expand slavery.
Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia because of an armed assault on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He was executed on October 1859 by hanging. This turned him into a martyr for the North. (was a slave and led slaves)
African American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesmen. After escaping slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolitionist movement in Massachusetts and New York, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive anti-slavery writings. Famed 19th century author and orator. Eminent human rights leader in the anti-slavery movement and 1st African American citizen to hold a high U.S. government rank.
1799-09/17/1858. "Dred Scott Decision". An enslaved African American man in the U.S. who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and daughters. In Scott v. Sanford case of 1857, Scott claimed he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they lived in Illinois and Wisconsin territory for 4 years, where slavery was illegal. The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) decided 7-2 against Scott, finding that no one of African lineage could claim citizenship in the U.S., therefore Scott could not bring his case to SCOTUS. Also: Scott's temporary residence outside of Missouri couldn't bring his emancipation under the Missouri Compromise, which SCOTUS ruled unconstitutional as it would improperly "deprive Scott's owner of his legal property".
photographer. He took photos of the casualties of the Civil War that horrified many. He got so close to the action that he could've gotten injured, captured, or killed. It brought a lot of awareness to the cruelty of the "civil" war. Eventually, he had to have other men go out and take photos for him due to him losing his eyesight.
r. 1861-1865. 16th president of the United States, commander and chief during the American Civil War for the union. After the Battle of Antiem, he created the Emancipation Proclamation to enlist African Americans to join the Union Army (this also released them from slavery). He wrote the Gettysburg Address in 1863, two days after the Battle of Gettysburg for the Soldier's National Cemetary for Union Soldiers killed at Gettysburg. 5 days after Robert E. Lee surrendered from the Civil War, Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Boothe on April 14, 1865 at Fords Theater. He got his secondary presidency term in March of 1865. His death lead to Andrew Johnson's presidency and led to the downfall of Reconstruction (which Lincoln wanted to begin after the Civil War ended and AJ fudged up)
Second Great Awakening
1800s. Self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination. Begun at the turn of the century. Originally led by leaders alarmed by low attendance at church. Reverend Charles Grandison Finney held month long revivals in 1821. Led to the emergence of Mormonism.
Term penned by John O'Sullivan. "Divinely appointed mission to occupy all of North America." White men had a far better title to claim western lands than others. We must expand freedom across the land and any other person, country, etc, is an obstacle that we must go around.
Panic of 1819
As a result from the War of 1812. Bank of the U.S. participated in a speculative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812 ended. Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels...the economic bubble burst. The Panic disrupted the political harmony of previous years (people continued to distrust banks). The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the U.S. was constitutional.
Panic of 1837
Andrew Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and their deposits in state or "pet" banks. Party because the Bank of the U.S. had lost the ability to regulate the currency effectively, prices rose dramatically while real wages declined. By 1836, the American government and the Bank of England required Gold or Silver as payments. With cotton exports declining, the U.S. suffered a panic in 1837 until 1843.
1848-1849. A rapid movement of people to a newly discovered goldfield in California and Colorado. This was a quest for gold and manifest destiny.
Purchased in 1803 for $15 million. This territory stretched from Canada and Mississippi to the Rocky Mountains. Thomas Jefferson purchased the territory due to a rising ear for Napolean and the French influence in the New Orleans area and interference in American commerce. This ended the French presence in America and doubled the size of America. Jefferson believed he went beyond the Constitution, but believed it was necessary for the greater good of America.
1787. Called for the eventual establishment of 3-5 states North of the Ohio River and East of the Mississippi River. "Empire of Liberty"-Thomas Jefferson. Rather than colonizing the West, they would admit the population as a part of the political system. They also pledged the utmost faith to the Native Americans that their land would not be taken without consent. This is the 1st official recognition that Indians still owned land. Also: this prohibited slavery in the old Northwest (didn't do much, they found ways around it)
1819. John Quincy Adams negotiated this so that Spain would give U.S. Florida and Georgia. Spain knew they couldn't keep this property and protect it, so they sold the area, as well as Oregon for $5 million. We gave up Texas for this treaty, but will gain it again soon.
1832-33. South Carolina stood alone during this time. Several Southern states passed resolutions condemning it. Andrew Jackson created tariffs and South Carolina found them unconstitutional and refused to follow them. This created a further divide between North and South because 38-92% tax on all imported goods.
1820. Missouri admitted to the union as a slave state. To maintain the balance, Maine was admitted as a free state. Congress prohibited slavery north of the 36 30 latitude in remaining Louisiana purchase territory.
1820s and 1830s. Forcing the Indian population out of the state. Indian Removal Act of 1830 (Jackson) called for the removal of 5 tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole with 60,000 leaving (Trail of Tears) "savages" were not sovereign. White plantation owners and continued slavery in those states.
Economic system put in by Henry Clay. His vision was to create a protective tariff--he wanted to be a part of the national bank, started giving subsidies for national transportation projects to try to create a better economy.
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Feb 2, 1848. Treaty adding 525,000 miles to the U.S. territory. Created a fixed border at the Rio Grande and extended the U.S. to the Pacific Coast annexing more than 1/2 million miles of Mexican territory for $15 Million after the Mexican American War
1846. Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution prohibiting slavery from all territories acquired from Mexico. In 1848, opponents of slaver4y's expansion organized the Free-Soil Party.
Compromise of 1850
Included: Admission of California as a free state, abolition of the slave trade (not slavery itself) in D.C., stronger fugitive slave laws, in the Mexican Cession territories, local white inhabitants would determine the status of slavery
Kansas Nebraska Act
Law sponsored by Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas to allow settlers in newly organized territory North of the Missouri border decided the slavery issue for themselves. Fury over the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Led to violence in the Kansas territory (1854)
2nd Bank of the United States
Its closing began the Panic of 1837, established national currency, unregulated banks took over and put everyone in debt. The essential function was to regulate public credit and establish national currency.
1862. Congress enacted this act which subjected all white males between the ages of 18-35 for military service for three years
Nat Turner Rebellion
Aug 22, 1831. Virginia slave preacher (God had shown him to lead a slave rebellion) He went from farm to farm assaulting white inhabitants. The victims were mainly women and children. Sent a shock wave throughout. He was executed after killing about 60 whites with his followers. This was the last large scale rebellion. Virginia tightened its chains about slavery. Turner was a slave that was slightly educated. They cracked down on slave religious services and education.
1837. Food riot that broke out in New York City and lasted less than a day. Violent civil disturbance grew out of a public meeting called by the Locofocos to protest runaway prices, as hungry workers plundered private storerooms filled with sacks of hoarded flour. Commodity prices had sky rocketed over the winter of 1836-37, an inflationary boom fueled by foreign investment and 2 successive years of wheat crop failures. The riot was also a sign of the impending financial crisis of the Panic of 1837.
Astor Place Riot
1849. Began from a rivalry between British and American actor. Deadliest riot to date in America and pitted immigrants against the nativists or both of them against the upper classes who control the military and police forces. It led to creation of the 1st police force armed with deadly weapons. It showed struggle between classes, nativists, and immigrants.
1846-48. War between Mexico and U.S. for control of California and New Mexico. Conflict over the annexation of Texas, as Mexico still thought that they owned it (minus the Gadsen Purchase). Led to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Virginia, was attacked by John Brown and followers with an armed assault (federal arsenal)
Trail of Tears
1836. Path that the Native Americans were forced to walk as a result of the Indian Removal Act of the same year (Jackson) 1/4 of the people died on this trek and called one of the greatest injustices of American history. Creek and Cherokee were removed from Georgia and Mississippi and forced to go to Oklahoma. Only 3.500 survived of about 60,000
American Colonization Society
1816. An organization dedicated to sending freed slaves to Africa. Also prompted the abolition of slavery. Soon established Liberia on West Coast of Africa. Named Capital after James Monroe (Monrovia)
1844. Formed after the collapse of the Whig party because there was room for a major party to oppose the Democrats. It was set up as a secret society to politically organize native born protestants in the defense of traditional religious and political values
1834. Lead by Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, Daniel Webster, and Horace Greely. They were head quartered in Washington D.C. The party formed to oppose Andrew Jackson and his democratic policies. The Whig party favored federalist traditions for internal improvements. Supported Congress holding supremacy over the President. Favored modernization and economic protectionism to help manufacturing. Party disbanded in 1850s after being divided over slavery.
1848-52. Political Party. Group was against the expansion of slavery into the Western Territories/States. The WIlmot Proviso was an antedencent to this party. The Free Soilers historical slogan called for "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men". Party elected Martin Van Buren in 1848 election, winning only 10% of ticket. Despite losing, the percentage was enough to weaken the Democratic hold of the ticket. The Free Soilers later absorbed into the Republican Party, which advocated the same anti-slavery ideals.
Johnson v. M'Intosh
1823. Thomas Johnson and William M'Intosh. A question of whose land claim was more valid. By using the doctrine of discovery, it is deemed that no private citizens can purchase land from a Native tribe, only the government can do it. Focuses on land that was initially purchased in the Northwest Territory in the colony of Virginia.
Worchester v. Georgia
In 1832, when the court invalidated a Georgia law that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to Cherokee counrty. Marshall claimed only the federal govt. could do that. He explained that the tribes were sovereign entities in much the same way Georgia was a sovereign entity. In defending the power of the federal government, he was also affirming and explaining the rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state governments.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
June 1830. Led by Chief John Ross. the Cherokee Nation sued Georgia for passing discriminatory laws against their tribe. However, the court ruled that Native Americans could not sue a state as they weren't a sovereign nation. The result was deeming the Native tribes as "special but dependent", putting the Native Americans in a special status: not slaves, not citizens, but wards of the federal government.
1793. Eli Whitney, Yale graduate working in Georgia. Cotton Gin consisted of rollers and brushes that separated seed from cotton. Made growing and selling on large scale. Revolutionized American slavery. Unprecedented expansion that reopened from 1803-1808 in South Carolina. Cotton Kingdom=slavery.