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U.S. History to 1877 Cheat Sheet by

Preparation for Final
history     final     us     1877

Important People

Name
Defi­nit­ion
Andrew Jackson
r. 1829-1837. "Old Hickor­y" Democrat that believed Indians should be pushed west of the Missis­sippi River and African Americans should be freed and sent abroad or remain slaves. He was a nation­alist that believed states should be the center of the government and that the government shouldn't interfere with personal lives.
Henry Clay
He tried to answer the question of slavery in the west, he was respon­sible for the 1:1 ratio and let stated decide if they wanted to be free or not which started Bleeding Kansas. Under the Compromise of 1850, the fugitive slave act was proposed and angered the North and backfired on the South. Founder of the Whigs.
John C Calhoun
Spokesman for a slave plantation in the South. He defended slave planta­tions against anti-s­lavery. He protected the South from tariffs during the 1830s and had tariffs lowered for the next 10 years.
Charles Sumner
1840s & 1850s. Massac­husetts senator. Anti-s­lavery leader and one of the founders of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery in new territ­ories. He was later attacked by Andrew Butler's cousin, Preston Brooks, on the senate floors for efforts to expand slavery.
John Brown
Placed on trial for treason to the state of Virginia because of an armed assault on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry. He was executed on October 1859 by hanging. This turned him into a martyr for the North. (was a slave and led slaves)
Frederick Douglass
African American social reformer, abolit­ionist, orator, writer, and statesmen. After escaping slavery in Maryland, he became a national leader of the abolit­ionist movement in Massac­husetts and New York, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive anti-s­lavery writings. Famed 19th century author and orator. Eminent human rights leader in the anti-s­lavery movement and 1st African American citizen to hold a high U.S. government rank.
Dred Scott
1799-0­9/1­7/1858. "Dred Scott Decisi­on". An enslaved African American man in the U.S. who unsucc­ess­fully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and daughters. In Scott v. Sanford case of 1857, Scott claimed he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they lived in Illinois and Wisconsin territory for 4 years, where slavery was illegal. The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) decided 7-2 against Scott, finding that no one of African lineage could claim citize­nship in the U.S., therefore Scott could not bring his case to SCOTUS. Also: Scott's temporary residence outside of Missouri couldn't bring his emanci­pation under the Missouri Compro­mise, which SCOTUS ruled uncons­tit­utional as it would improperly "­deprive Scott's owner of his legal proper­ty".
Matthew Brady
photog­rapher. He took photos of the casualties of the Civil War that horrified many. He got so close to the action that he could've gotten injured, captured, or killed. It brought a lot of awareness to the cruelty of the "­civ­il" war. Eventu­ally, he had to have other men go out and take photos for him due to him losing his eyesight.
Abraham Lincoln
r. 1861-1865. 16th president of the United States, commander and chief during the American Civil War for the union. After the Battle of Antiem, he created the Emanci­pation Procla­mation to enlist African Americans to join the Union Army (this also released them from slavery). He wrote the Gettysburg Address in 1863, two days after the Battle of Gettysburg for the Soldier's National Cemetary for Union Soldiers killed at Gettys­burg. 5 days after Robert E. Lee surren­dered from the Civil War, Lincoln was killed by John Wilkes Boothe on April 14, 1865 at Fords Theater. He got his secondary presidency term in March of 1865. His death lead to Andrew Johnson's presidency and led to the downfall of Recons­tru­ction (which Lincoln wanted to begin after the Civil War ended and AJ fudged up)

Movements

Move­ment
Defi­nit­ion
Second Great Awakening
1800s. Self-i­mpr­ove­ment, self-r­eli­ance, and self-d­ete­rmi­nation. Begun at the turn of the century. Originally led by leaders alarmed by low attendance at church. Reverend Charles Grandison Finney held month long revivals in 1821. Led to the emergence of Mormonism.
Manifest Destiny
Term penned by John O'Sull­ivan. "­Div­inely appointed mission to occupy all of North Americ­a." White men had a far better title to claim western lands than others. We must expand freedom across the land and any other person, country, etc, is an obstacle that we must go around.
Panic of 1819
As a result from the War of 1812. Bank of the U.S. partic­ipated in a specul­ative fever that swept the country after the War of 1812 ended. Early in 1819, as European demand for American farm products returned to normal levels...the economic bubble burst. The Panic disrupted the political harmony of previous years (people continued to distrust banks). The Supreme Court ruled in McCulloch v. Maryland that the Bank of the U.S. was consti­tut­ional.
Panic of 1837
Andrew Jackson authorized the removal of federal funds from the vaults of the national bank and their deposits in state or "­pet­" banks. Party because the Bank of the U.S. had lost the ability to regulate the currency effect­ively, prices rose dramat­ically while real wages declined. By 1836, the American government and the Bank of England required Gold or Silver as payments. With cotton exports declining, the U.S. suffered a panic in 1837 until 1843.
Gold Rush
1848-1849. A rapid movement of people to a newly discovered goldfield in California and Colorado. This was a quest for gold and manifest destiny.

Government Issues

Govt. Issues
Desc­rip­tion
Louisiana Purchase
Purchased in 1803 for $15 million. This territory stretched from Canada and Missis­sippi to the Rocky Mountains. Thomas Jefferson purchased the territory due to a rising ear for Napolean and the French influence in the New Orleans area and interf­erence in American commerce. This ended the French presence in America and doubled the size of America. Jefferson believed he went beyond the Consti­tution, but believed it was necessary for the greater good of America.
Northwest Ordinance
1787. Called for the eventual establ­ishment of 3-5 states North of the Ohio River and East of the Missis­sippi River. "­Empire of Libert­y"-T­homas Jefferson. Rather than colonizing the West, they would admit the population as a part of the political system. They also pledged the utmost faith to the Native Americans that their land would not be taken without consent. This is the 1st official recogn­ition that Indians still owned land. Also: this prohibited slavery in the old Northwest (didn't do much, they found ways around it)
Adams-Onis Treaty
1819. John Quincy Adams negotiated this so that Spain would give U.S. Florida and Georgia. Spain knew they couldn't keep this property and protect it, so they sold the area, as well as Oregon for $5 million. We gave up Texas for this treaty, but will gain it again soon.
Nullif­ication Crisis
1832-33. South Carolina stood alone during this time. Several Southern states passed resolu­tions condemning it. Andrew Jackson created tariffs and South Carolina found them uncons­tit­utional and refused to follow them. This created a further divide between North and South because 38-92% tax on all impo­rted goods.
Missouri Compromise
1820. Missouri admitted to the union as a slave state. To maintain the balance, Maine was admitted as a free state. Congress prohibited slavery north of the 36 30 latitude in remaining Louisiana purchase territory.
Indian Removal
1820s and 1830s. Forcing the Indian population out of the state. Indian Removal Act of 1830 (Jackson) called for the removal of 5 tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole with 60,000 leaving (Trail of Tears) "­sav­age­s" were not sovereign. White plantation owners and continued slavery in those states.
American System
Economic system put in by Henry Clay. His vision was to create a protective tariff--he wanted to be a part of the national bank, started giving subsidies for national transp­ort­ation projects to try to create a better economy.
Treaty of Guadal­upe­-Hi­dalgo
Feb 2, 1848. Treaty adding 525,000 miles to the U.S. territory. Created a fixed border at the Rio Grande and extended the U.S. to the Pacific Coast annexing more than 1/2 million miles of Mexican territory for $15 Million after the Mexican American War
Wilmot Proviso
1846. Congre­ssman David Wilmot of Pennsy­lvania proposed a resolution prohib­iting slavery from all territ­ories acquired from Mexico. In 1848, opponents of slaver4y's expansion organized the Free-Soil Party.
Compromise of 1850
Included: Admission of California as a free state, abolition of the slave trade (not slavery itself) in D.C., stronger fugitive slave laws, in the Mexican Cession territ­ories, local white inhabi­tants would determine the status of slavery
Kansas Nebraska Act
Law sponsored by Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas to allow settlers in newly organized territory North of the Missouri border decided the slavery issue for themse­lves. Fury over the resulting repeal of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Led to violence in the Kansas territory (1854)
2nd Bank of the United States
Its closing began the Panic of 1837, establ­ished national currency, unregu­lated banks took over and put everyone in debt. The essential function was to regulate public credit and establish national currency.
Conscr­iption Act
1862. Congress enacted this act which subjected all white males between the ages of 18-35 for military service for three years
 

Conflict

Conf­lict
Desc­rip­tion
Nat Turner Rebellion
Aug 22, 1831. Virginia slave preacher (God had shown him to lead a slave rebellion) He went from farm to farm assaulting white inhabi­tants. The victims were mainly women and children. Sent a shock wave throug­hout. He was executed after killing about 60 whites with his followers. This was the last large scale rebellion. Virginia tightened its chains about slavery. Turner was a slave that was slightly educated. They cracked down on slave religious services and education.
Flour Riot
1837. Food riot that broke out in New York City and lasted less than a day. Violent civil distur­bance grew out of a public meeting called by the Locofocos to protest runaway prices, as hungry workers plundered private storerooms filled with sacks of hoarded flour. Commodity prices had sky rocketed over the winter of 1836-37, an inflat­ionary boom fueled by foreign investment and 2 successive years of wheat crop failures. The riot was also a sign of the impending financial crisis of the Panic of 1837.
Astor Place Riot
1849. Began from a rivalry between British and American actor. Deadliest riot to date in America and pitted immigrants against the nativists or both of them against the upper classes who control the military and police forces. It led to creation of the 1st police force armed with deadly weapons. It showed struggle between classes, nativists, and immigr­ants.
Mexican War
1846-48. War between Mexico and U.S. for control of California and New Mexico. Conflict over the annexation of Texas, as Mexico still thought that they owned it (minus the Gadsen Purchase). Led to the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Harper's Ferry
Virginia, was attacked by John Brown and followers with an armed assault (federal arsenal)
Trail of Tears
1836. Path that the Native Americans were forced to walk as a result of the Indian Removal Act of the same year (Jackson) 1/4 of the people died on this trek and called one of the greatest injustices of American history. Creek and Cherokee were removed from Georgia and Missis­sippi and forced to go to Oklahoma. Only 3.500 survived of about 60,000

Groups

Groups
Desc­rip­tion
American Coloni­zation Society
1816. An organi­zation dedicated to sending freed slaves to Africa. Also prompted the abolition of slavery. Soon establ­ished Liberia on West Coast of Africa. Named Capital after James Monroe (Monrovia)
Know Nothings
1844. Formed after the collapse of the Whig party because there was room for a major party to oppose the Democrats. It was set up as a secret society to politi­cally organize native born protes­tants in the defense of tradit­ional religious and political values
Whigs
1834. Lead by Henry Clay, William Henry Harrison, Daniel Webster, and Horace Greely. They were head quartered in Washington D.C. The party formed to oppose Andrew Jackson and his democratic policies. The Whig party favored federalist traditions for internal improv­ements. Supported Congress holding supremacy over the President. Favored modern­ization and economic protec­tionism to help manufa­ctu­ring. Party disbanded in 1850s after being divided over slavery.
Free Soilers
1848-52. Political Party. Group was against the expansion of slavery into the Western Territ­ori­es/­States. The WIlmot Proviso was an antede­ncent to this party. The Free Soilers historical slogan called for "free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men". Party elected Martin Van Buren in 1848 election, winning only 10% of ticket. Despite losing, the percentage was enough to weaken the Democratic hold of the ticket. The Free Soilers later absorbed into the Republican Party, which advocated the same anti-s­lavery ideals.

Court Cases

Cases
Defi­nit­ion
Johnson v. M'Intosh
1823. Thomas Johnson and William M'Intosh. A question of whose land claim was more valid. By using the doctrine of discovery, it is deemed that no private citizens can purchase land from a Native tribe, only the government can do it. Focuses on land that was initially purchased in the Northwest Territory in the colony of Virginia.
Worch­ester v. Georgia
In 1832, when the court invali­dated a Georgia law that attempted to regulate access by U.S. citizens to Cherokee counrty. Marshall claimed only the federal govt. could do that. He explained that the tribes were sovereign entities in much the same way Georgia was a sovereign entity. In defending the power of the federal govern­ment, he was also affirming and explaining the rights of the tribes to remain free from the authority of state govern­ments.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
June 1830. Led by Chief John Ross. the Cherokee Nation sued Georgia for passing discri­min­atory laws against their tribe. However, the court ruled that Native Americans could not sue a state as they weren't a sovereign nation. The result was deeming the Native tribes as "­special but depend­ent­", putting the Native Americans in a special status: not slaves, not citizens, but wards of the federal govern­ment.

Items

Items
Desc­rip­tion
Cotton Gin
1793. Eli Whitney, Yale graduate working in Georgia. Cotton Gin consisted of rollers and brushes that separated seed from cotton. Made growing and selling on large scale. Revolu­tio­nized American slavery. Unprec­edented expansion that reopened from 1803-1808 in South Carolina. Cotton Kingdo­m=s­lavery.

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