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Anxiety and related disorders Cheat Sheet by

nursing     health     mental

Anxiety Prevalence

More prevalent in women (2:1)
More prevalent in people under 45 y/o
More prevalent in divorc­ed/­sep­arated people
More prevalent in people with lower socio-­eco­nomic status

Panic Disorder

Onset at ~late 20s
Recurrent unexpected panic attacks
Intense physical symptoms
May last weeks, months or years
Close morbidity rate to depression
Women affected 3x more than men
May be affiliated with stressors

Genera­lized Anxiety Disorder

6 months of unreal­istic worry and anxiety
Affects 3% of population
Associated with Major Depressive Disorder

Etiology for Panic and GAD

Psycho­dynamic Theory
Inability of ego to intervene
id and superego produce anxiety
unable to regulate anxiety and resorts to uncons­cious mechanisms
ineffe­ctive use of defence mechanisms
Cognitive Theory
Faulty thinking results in malada­ptive behaviours and emotional disorders
Anxiety is maintained by dysfun­ctional assessment of enviro­nment
Biological Factors
Gene­tics
Identical twins: 30%
Close relative: 10-20%
Cholecystokinin produc­tion: induce panic attacks
Neur­oan­ato­mical
Abnormal levels of blood-lactate
Infusion of Sodium Lactate may precip­itate panic attacks
Neurochemical
Norepinephrine: cause anxiety
Serotonin and GABA decrease with panic/­anxiety disorders
 

Levels of Anxiety

Normal
Mild
- Something is different
- Helps person focus attention to learn, solve problems, etc.
- Perceptual field widens slightly
- Alert, more perceptive
- Able to recognize anxiety
promote motivation and growth
Moderate
- Disturbing feeling something is wrong
- nervous and aggitated
- Difficulty concen­trating
- Perceptual field narrows a bit
- Diminished cognitive skills
Severe
- Perceptual field greatly reduced
- Does not notice external events
attention focused on small part of specific area
- Unaware of anxiety
- Increase Vital Signs
Panic
- Focused on defense
- Flight of ideas
- Feels dread and terror

Specific Phobias

Signs and Symptoms
Anxiety response to object or situation
Avoidance of object/situation
Impairment of daily routine
Acknowledge reaction is unreas­onable
Anxiety may be triggered
Women 2x as likely to be affected than men
Not diagnosed as a phobia unless interferes with person's function or causes severe distress
 

Separation Anxiety Disorder

Recurrent distress over leaving home or attachment figure
Excessive worry about the loss of figure
Refusal to leave home
Fear of being alone
Refusal to sleep away from home or figure
Nightmares with separation theme
Physical symptoms
Experience at least three of the above with symptoms lasting 4+ weeks in childr­en/­ado­les­cents or 6+ months in adults

Agorap­hobia

Panic disorder signs and symptoms
Fears being in places where escaping is difficult or embarr­assing if panic does occur
Planes, subways, buses, movie theatres, etc.
May not meet daily commit­ments (ie. work, grocery shopping, appoin­tments, etc)
Knows behaviour is extreme
More common in women than men

Social Anxiety Disorder

Fear that person might do something embarr­assing, or be evaluated negatively by others
fear of public speaking, public eating, using public washrooms
Self-m­edi­cation with alcohol or street drugs to cope

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