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Banathy: Instructional Systems Design Cheat Sheet by

design     systems     instructional     banathy


In 1968, Bela Banathy writes one of the first books totally dedicated to Instru­ctional System Design. His model edges closer to the present ADDIE or ISD model by providing the following concepts:
Formulate Object­ives
Develop a Criterion Test
Analyze Learning task
Design Training or Learning System
Implement and test output
Change to Improve

Model of the Design of Instru­ctional Systems

What is intere­sting about this early model is that just like the ADDIE model, developing the test is performed immedi­ately after the objectives are built. In addition, although he does not use the same ADDIE terms, it has a similar flow to it in that it follows most of the same phases and steps. Banathy writes that systems have:
Purpose: What has to be done.
Process: The operations and functions that are engaged to accomplish the purpose
Content: The parts that comprise the system.
Note that the sequence of purpose, processes, and content is important because it implies priori­ties.

Purpose of the instru­ctional system

Banathy also recognizes that the purpose of the instru­ctional system is learning (p.24), rather than instru­ction. He writes that if a learning enviro­nment was the true focus, then rigid scheduling would be eliminated because we learn at different time rates. In addition, the learner would be on stage, rather than the teacher (who is there to help manage the learning enviro­nment) — or as we now say, a guide on the side rather than a sage on the stage.

Multi-­dir­ect­ional systems approach

Banathy further writes (p. 61) that a systems approach is multi-­dir­ect­ional, in that it not only allows feedback, but it also has feed-ahead or feed-f­orward strategies for selecting learning experi­ences. Thus, instru­ctional systems are dynamic, rather than linear as some people would like us to believe.

Addie Model

Barnathy Model

Hedegard juxtap­osition of 2 educat­ional systems

Banathy continues with this active learner role by describing Hedegard's juxtap­osition of two educat­ional systems:
In the first, the learner reacts to the teacher's active role. The teacher selects content and experience and the learner reacts to them. The teacher's thought processes involve organi­zation, while the learner passively connects them. In addition, a learner's unique motives are rarely accepted or encour­aged.
In the second system, the learner plays an active role in selecting content and learning experi­ences while the learner's thought processes involves organi­zation.

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