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Declaration of the Rights of Man & of the Citizen Cheat Sheet by

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The Declar­ation

The Declar­ation is introduced by a preamble describing the fundam­ental charac­ter­istics of the rights which are qualified as being "­nat­ural, unalie­nable and sacred­" and consisting of "­simple and incont­estable princi­ple­s" on which citizens could base their demands. In the second article, "the natural and impres­cri­ptible rights of man" are defined as "­lib­erty, property, security and resistance to oppres­sio­n". It called for the destru­ction of aristo­cratic privileges by procla­iming an end to feudalism and to exemptions from taxation, freedom and equal rights for all human beings (referred to as "­Men­"), and access to public office based on talent. The monarchy was restri­cted, and all citizens were to have the right to take part in the legisl­ative process. Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed.

Articles I - VII

Article I- Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distin­ctions can be founded only on the common good.
Article II- The goal of any political associ­ation is the conser­vation of the natural and impres­cri­ptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, safety and resistance against oppres­sion.
Article III- The principle of any sovere­ignty resides essent­ially in the Nation. No body, no individual can exert authority which does not emanate expressly from it.
Article IV- Liberty consists of doing anything which does not harm others: thus, the exercise of the natural rights of each man has only those borders which assure other members of the society the enjoyment of these same rights. These borders can be determined only by the law.
Article V- The law has the right to forbid only actions harmful to society. Anything which is not forbidden by the law cannot be impeded, and no one can be constr­ained to do what it does not order.
Article VI- The law is the expression of the general will. All the citizens have the right of contri­buting personally or through their repres­ent­atives to its formation. It must be the same for all, either that it protects, or that it punishes. All the citizens, being equal in its eyes, are equally admissible to all public dignities, places and employ­ments, according to their capacity and without distin­ction other than that of their virtues and of their talents.
Article VII- No man can be accused, arrested nor detained but in the cases determined by the law, and according to the forms which it has prescr­ibed. Those who solicit, dispatch, carry out or cause to be carried out arbitrary orders, must be punished; but any citizen called or seized under the terms of the law must obey at once; he renders himself culpable by resist­ance.
 

Declar­ation Rights of Man

Articles VIII - XVII

Article VIII- The law should establish only penalties that are strictly and evidently necessary, and no one can be punished but under a law establ­ished and promul­gated before the offense and legally applied.
Article IX- Any man being presumed innocent until he is declared culpable, if it is judged indisp­ensible to arrest him, any rigor which would not be necessary for the securing of his person must be severely reprim­anded by the law.
Article X- No one may be disturbed for his opinions, even religious ones, provided that their manife­station does not trouble the public order establ­ished by the law.
Article XI- The free commun­ication of thoughts and of opinions is one of the most precious rights of man: any citizen thus may speak, write, print freely, except to respond to the abuse of this liberty, in the cases determined by the law.
Article XII- The guarantee of the rights of man and of the citizen necess­itates a public force: this force is thus instituted for the advantage of all and not for the p**Art­icular utility of those in whom it is trusted.
Article XIII- For the mainte­nance of the public force and for the expend­itures of admini­str­ation, a common contri­bution is indisp­ens­able; it must be equally distri­buted between all the citizens, according to their ability to pay.
Article XIV- Each citizen has the right to ascertain, by himself or through his repres­ent­atives, the need for a public tax, to consent to it freely, to know the uses to which it is put, and of determ­ining the propor­tion, basis, collec­tion, and duration.
Article XV- The society has the right of requesting account from any public agent of its admini­str­ation.
Article XVI- Any society in which the guarantee of rights is not assured, nor the separation of powers determ­ined, has no Consti­tution.
Article XVII- Property being an inviolable and sacred right, no one can be deprived of private usage, if it is not when the public necessity, legally noted, evidently requires it, and under the condition of a just and prior indemnity.

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