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Depressive Symptoms + Axial System Cheat Sheet by

healthcare     mental     psychiartry     depression


The world has moved beyond this model to the DSM V (although DSM IV-TR is still widely used), and one should be up to date regarding the latest diagno­stics criteria for depres­sion. this historical classi­fic­ation of symptoms remain a powerful for ABCD concep­tua­liz­ation of the problems.

Emotional Manife­sta­tions

Dejected mood
Negative feelings toward self
Reduction in gratif­ication
Loss of emotional attach­ments
Crying spells
Loss of mirth response

Cognitive Manife­sta­tions

Low self-e­val­uation
Negative expect­ations
Self-blame and self-c­rit­icism
Distortion of body image

Motiva­tional Manife­sta­tions

Paralysis of the will
Avoidance, escapist, and withdrawal wishes
Suicidal wishes
Increased dependency

Vegetative & Physical Manife­sta­tions

Loss of appetite (Anorexia)
Sleep distur­bance
Loss of libido

Multi-­axial system

Previo­usly, the DSM-IV organized each psychi­atric diagnosis into five dimensions (axes) relating to different aspects of disorder or disabi­lity:
Axis I: All psycho­logical diagnostic categories except mental retard­ation & person­ality disorder
Axis II: Person­ality disorders & mental retard­ation
Axis III: General medical condition; acute medical conditions & physical disorders
Axis IV: Psycho­social and enviro­nmental factors contri­buting to the disorder
Axis V: Global Assessment of Functi­oning or Children's Global Assessment Scale for children & teens under the age of 18
With the advent of the DSM-5 in 2013, the APA eliminated the longst­anding multiaxial system for mental disorders.

Common Axis Disorders

Common Axis I disorders include depres­sion, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and schizo­phr­enia.
Common Axis II disorders include person­ality disorders: paranoid person­ality disorder, schizoid person­ality disorder, schizo­typal person­ality disorder, borderline person­ality disorder, antisocial person­ality disorder, narcis­sistic person­ality disorder, histrionic person­ality disorder, avoidant person­ality disorder, dependent person­ality disorder, obsess­ive­-co­mpu­lsive person­ality disorder; and intell­ectual disabi­lities.
Common Axis III disorders include brain injuries and other medica­l/p­hysical disorders which may aggravate existing diseases or present symptoms similar to other disorders.

Caution: The DSM-IV-TR states,

because it is produced for the completion of federal legisl­ative mandates, its use by people without clinical training can lead to inappr­opriate applic­ation of its contents. Approp­riate use of the diagnostic criteria is said to require extensive clinical training, and its contents "­cannot simply be applied in a cookbook fashio­n". The APA notes diagnostic labels are primarily for use as a "­con­venient shorth­and­" among profes­sio­nals. The DSM advises laypersons should consult the DSM only to obtain inform­ation, not to make diagnoses, and people who may have a mental disorder should be referred to psycho­logical counseling or treatment. Further, a shared diagnosis or label may have different causes or require different treatm­ents; for this reason the DSM contains no inform­ation regarding treatment or cause. The range of the DSM represents an extensive scope of psychi­atric and psycho­logical issues or condit­ions, and it is not exclusive to what may be considered "­ill­nes­ses­".

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