Show Menu

EKG Interpretation Cheat Sheet by

EKG Interpretation
medical     healthcare     ekg     interpretation

1. Sinus Bradyc­ardia

A. Causes
Hypoglycemia
Hypothermia
Hypothyroidism
Previous cardiac history
Medications
Toxic exposure
MI – Inferior wall involving right coronary artery
B. Signs & Symptoms
Syncope
Dizziness
Chest Pain
Shortness of Breath
Exercise Intole­rance
Cool, clammy skin
C. Risks
Reduced Cardiac Output
D. Treatm­ents
Atropine
Pacing if the patient is hemody­nam­ically compro­mised
Treatment will be based on whether patient is sympto­matic
E. Nursing Interv­ent­ions
Assess patient
Are they sympto­matic?
Give oxygen and monitor oxygen saturation
Monitor blood pressure & heart rate
Start IV if not already establ­ished
Notify MD
 

2. Sinus Tachyc­ardia

A. Causes
Damage to heart tissues from heart disease
Hypertension
Fever
Stress
Excess alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, or recrea­tional drugs such as cocaine
A side effect of medica­tions
Response to pain
Imbalance of electr­olytes
Hyperthyroidism
B. Signs & Symptoms
Dizziness
Shortness of breath
Lightheadedness
Rapid pulse rate
Heart palpit­ations
Chest pain
Syncope
C. Risks
Cardiac output may fall due to inadequate ventri­cular filling time
Myocardial oxygen demand increases
Can precip­itate myocardial ischemia or infarct
D. Medical Treatm­ents
Find & treat cause
E. Nursing Interv­ent­ions
Assess patient
Are they sympto­matic?
Are they stable?
Give oxygen & monitor oxygen saturation
Monitor blood pressure & heart rate
Start IV if not already establ­ished
Notify MD
 

3. Atrial Flutter

A. Causes
Valve disorder (mitral)
Thickening of the heart muscle
Ischemia
Cardiomyopathy
COPD
Emphysema
B. Signs & Symptoms
Palpitations
SOB
Anxiety
Weakness
Angina
Syncope
C. Risks
Clot formation in atria
Dramatic drop in cardiac output
D. Medical Treatm­ents
Cardioversion – treatment of choice
Anti-arrhymics such as procai­namide to convert the flutter
Slow the ventri­cular rate by using diltiazem, verapamil, digitalis, or beta blocker
Heparin to reduce incidence of thrombus formation
E. Nursing Interv­ent­ions
Assess Patient
O2 if not already given
Start IV if not already establ­ished & hang NS
Notify MD
Prepare for cardio­version
 

4. Atrial Fibril­lation

A. Causes
Hypoxia
Hypertension
Congestive heart failure
Coronary artery disease
Dysfunction of the sinus node
Mitral valve disorders
Rheumatic heart disease
Pericarditis
Hyperthyroidism
B. Signs & Symptoms
Heart palpit­ations
Irregular pulse which feels too rapid or too slow, racing, pounding or fluttering
Dizziness or light-­hea­dedness
Fainting
Confusion
Fatigue
Trouble breathing
Difficulty breathing when lying down
Sensation of tightness in the chest
C. Risks
Clot formation in atria (atria not completely emptying)
Stroke
Pulmonary Embolism
Dramatic drop in cardiac output
D. Medical Treatm­ent
Rate control (slow ventri­cular rate to 80-100 beats/­minute)
Anti-thrombotic therapy
Correction of rhythm
Chemical or electrical cardio­version

5. Ventri­cular Tachyc­ardia

A. Causes
Usually occurs w/unde­rlying heart disease
Commonly occurs w/myoc­ardial ischemia or infarction
Certain medica­tions may prolong the QT interval predis­posing the patient to ventri­cular tachyc­ardia
Electrolyte imbalance
Digitalis toxicity
Congestive heart failure
B. Signs & Symptoms
Chest discomfort (angina)
Syncope
Light-headedness or dizziness
Palpitations
Shortness of breath
Absent or rapid pulse
Loss of consci­ousness
Hypotension
C. Risk
Major cause of sudden cardiac death
D. Medical Treatm­ent
If there is no pulse, begin CPR and follow ACLS protocol
If there is a pulse and the patient is unstable - cardiovert & begin drug therapy
E. Nursing Interv­ent­ions
Assess your patient
If sympto­matic, treatment must be aggressive & immediate
Pulse present
Oxygen
Patent IV (prefe­rably x2)
Monitor patient very closely
Pulseless
ACLS protocol

6. Ventri­cular Fibril­lation

A. Causes
AMI
Untreated VT
Electrolyte imbalance
Hypothermia
Myocardial ischemia
Drug toxicity or overdose
Trauma
B. Signs & Symptoms
Loss of consci­ousness
Absent pulse
C. Risk
Death
D. Medical Treatm­ent
CPR w/imme­diate defibr­ill­ation
Initiate ACLS algorithm
E. Nursing Interv­ent­ions
ACLS

Download the EKG Interpretation Cheat Sheet

2 Pages
//media.cheatography.com/storage/thumb/davidpol_ekg-interpretation.750.jpg

PDF (recommended)

Alternative Downloads

Share This Cheat Sheet!

 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          Repositioning Patients to Prevent Pressure Ulcers Cheat Sheet
          Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale Cheat Sheet
          7 Types of Incontinence Cheat Sheet

          More Cheat Sheets by Davidpol

          How Much to Tip Cheat Sheet