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Essential Diabetes Control Chart Cheat Sheet by

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Introd­uction: Manage your diabetes ABCs

Knowing your Diabetes ABCs will help you manage your blood glucose, blood pressure, and choles­terol. Stop smoking if you smoke will also help. Working toward your ABC goals can help lower your chances of having a heart attack, stroke, or other diabetes problems.

A for the A1C test

The A1C test shows your average blood glucose level over the past 3 months. The A1C goal for many people with diabetes is below 7 percent. Ask your health care team what your goal should be.

B for Blood pressure

The blood pressure goal for most people with diabetes is below 140/90 mm Hg. Ask what your goal should be.

C for Choles­terol

Two kinds of choles­terol in your blood: LDL and HDL. LDL or “bad” choles­terol can build up clogging your blood vessels. Too much bad choles­terol can cause a heart attack or stroke. HDL or “good” choles­terol helps remove the “bad” choles­terol from your blood vessels.

S for Stop smoking

Stopping is especially important because both smoking and diabetes narrow blood vessels. Blood vessel narrowing makes your heart work harder. Quitting:
you will lower your risk for heart attack, stroke, nerve disease, kidney disease, diabetic eye disease, and amputation
your choles­terol and blood pressure levels may improve
your blood circul­ation will improve
you may have an easier time being physically active

Test Numbers

Diag­nosis
A1C (perce­nt)
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG)a
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)­ab
Normal
below 5.7
99 or below
139 or below
Predia­betes
5.7 to 6.4
100 to 125
140 to 199
Diabetes
6.5 or above
126 or above
200 or above
Sour­ce:
aGlucose values are in milligrams per deciliter, or mg/dL.
bAt 2 hours after drinking 75 grams of glucose. To diagnose gestat­ional diabetes, health care profes­sionals give more glucose to drink and use different numbers as cutoffs.
Source: Adapted from American Diabetes Associ­ation. Classi­fic­ation and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016;3­9(1­):S­14–S20, tables 2.1, 2.3.
 

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