1. Stay cairn.
2. Act quickly and decisively: if you know how to administer the appropriate first aid, take action. If the situation warrants it, call for emergency assistance.
3. Let the experts do their jobs: do not treat a victim if you do not know the appropriate procedures
1. Help the person into a sitting position on the ground, with their knees slightly raised, and loosen any restrictive clothing.
2. Check the person's breathing and pulse and, if necessary, perform appropriate rescue breathing or CPR methods.
1. Run cold water over the burn for 10-15 minutes.
2. Do not treat or cover the burn for 24 hours. If clothing rubs against the burn, protect with a gauze pad.
3. If a burn results in broken blisters, clean with water, then apply an antibiotic cream.
4 Cover the area with a sterile dressing, changing daily until the wound has healed.
3. Stop Breathing
1. If a person has stopped breathing and there is no heartbeat, CPR should be performed by someone who is familiar with the technique.
2. Place your hand in the center of the person's chest.
3. Begin chest compressions, doing approximately 100 per minute. You should see the chest rise after a number of compressions.
4. Continue working until EMS personnel arrives on the scene.
1. If a person has stopped breathing, a procedure known as rescue breathing should be performed.
2. Lay the person on his or her back and tilt the person's head bask and pinch their nose shut.
3. Place your mouth over their mouth and begin breathing.
4. Use normal breaths (approximately one per second) until their chest rises.
1. Have the person lay down and elevate the bleeding area.
2. Place a clean cloth over the wound and apply firm pressure. For a gaping wound, attempt to hold the edges together.
3. Maintain continuous pressure for 15 minutes.
4. If heavy bleeding continues after 15 minutes of pressure, call for emergency assistance.
1. If the bite is minor: wash area with water and soap and treat with an antibiotic cream to protect against infection. If h is a human bite, seek emergency assistance (because of the risk of infection).
2. If the bite continues to bleed: apply pressure to stop the bleeding and seek emergency assistance.
3. All animals (wild or household) who bite a human should be checked for rabies.
1. Have the person lie down with their legs elevated.
2. Make sure the person stays warm, with blankets both underneath and over them.
3. Do not give the person food or water until they have been seen by a medical professional.
1. Seek emergency assistance or call your local poison control center.
2. Describe the poison to emergency personnel. If they recommend vomiting, it can be prompted by placing a finger or other object at the back of the throat.
3. Do not induce vomiting unless instructed to do so!
9. Nose Bleed
1. The person should sit up straight with
the head tilted forward (not back).
2. Pinch the bleeding nostril(s) shut for 10 minutes (breathing through the mouth).
1. Use ice to reduce swelling, and, if there is bleeding, apply pressure to the area with a clean cloth.
2. Look for signs of a more severe head injury, including dizziness, drowsiness, speech difficulties, convulsions, bleeding of the ears or nose, vomiting, confusion or memory loss.
3. If the person is unconscious or if they show signs of a severe head injury, seek assistance.
1. If the person is struggling in the water, swim to the person (or use a boat or flotation device) and pull them to safety.
2. If the person is not breathing, take appropriate rescue breathing or CPR action (even before the person is pulled to safety, if possible) and seek emergency assistance.
12. Joint Dislocation
1. If the person has a dislocated joint, do not attempt to push it back into its proper spot unless you are medically trained to do so.
2. Seek emergency assistance.
3. The injured area should be splinted or placed in a sling to stabilize it until help arrives.
1. Stand behind the person and place your arms around his or her waist. The person should be tilted slightly forward.
2. Make a fist and place it slightly above the person's navel.
3. Place your other hand over the fist and give a quick, upward thrust into the person's abdomen.
4. Repeat until the object is dislodged.
1. Lay the person down with the head and upper torso elevated slightly and seek emergency assistance.
2. Check the person's breathing and pulse. Perform rescue breathing or CPR if necessary.