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Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences Cheat Sheet by

theory     intelligence     gardner     cognition

Theory of Multiple Intell­igences

We are all able to know the world through language, logica­l-m­ath­ema­tical analysis, spatial repres­ent­ation, musical thinking, the use of the body to solve problems or to make things, an unders­tanding of other indivi­duals, and an unders­tanding of ourselves. Where indivi­duals differ is in the strength of these intell­igences - the so-called profile of intell­igences -and in the ways in which such intell­igences are invoked and combined to carry out different tasks, solve diverse problems, and progress in various domains (Gardner, 1991).
Howard Gardner, American Develo­pmental Psycho­logist

Linguistic Intell­igence

Use words effect­ively. These learners have highly developed auditory skills and often think in words. They like reading, playing word games, making up poetry or stories. They can be taught by encour­aging them to say and see words, read books together. Tools include computers, games, multim­edia, books, tape recorders, and lecture.

Logica­l/M­ath­ema­tical Intell­igence

Demons­trate skills in reasoning, calcul­ating. Think concep­tually, abstractly and are able to see and explore patterns and relati­ons­hips. They like to experi­ment, solve puzzles, ask cosmic questions. They can be taught through logic games, invest­iga­tions, mysteries. They need to learn and form concepts before they can deal with details.

Spatial Intell­igence

Think in terms of physical space, as do architects and sailors. Very aware of their enviro­nments. They like to draw, do jigsaw puzzles, read maps, daydream. They can be taught through drawings, verbal and physical imagery. Tools include models, graphics, charts, photog­raphs, drawings, 3-D modeling, video, videoc­onf­ere­ncing, televi­sion, multim­edia, texts with pictur­es/­cha­rts­/graphs

Musical Intell­igence

Show sensit­ivity to rhythm and sound. They love music, but they are also sensitive to sounds in their enviro­nments. They may study better with music in the backgr­ound. They can be taught by turning lessons into lyrics, speaking rhythm­ically, tapping out time. Tools include musical instru­ments, music, radio, stereo, CD-ROM, multim­edia.

Naturalist Intell­igence

Recognize and categorize plants, animals, and other objects in nature. Good at catego­rizing and cataloging inform­ation easily. Enjoy camping, gardening, hiking and exploring the outdoors. Does not enjoy learning unfamiliar topics that have no connection with nature.


Interp­ersonal Intell­igence

Demons­trate skills in unders­tan­ding, intera­cting with others. These students learn through intera­ction. They have many friends, empathy for others, street smarts. They can be taught through group activi­ties, seminars, dialogues. Tools include the telephone, audio confer­encing, time and attention from the instru­ctor, video confer­encing, writing, computer confer­encing, E-mail.

Intrap­ersonal Intell­igence

Unders­tanding one's own interests, goals. These learners tend to shy away from others. They're in tune with their inner feelings; they have wisdom, intuition and motiva­tion, as well as a strong will, confidence and opinions. They can be taught through indepe­ndent study and intros­pec­tion. Tools include books, creative materials, diaries, privacy and time. They are the most indepe­ndent of the learners.

Bodily­-Ki­nes­thetic Intell­igence

Use the body effect­ively, like a dancer or a surgeon. Keen sense of body awareness. They like movement, making things, touching. They commun­icate well through body language and can be taught through physical activity, hands-on learning, acting out, role playing. Tools include equipment and real objects.

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