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Instructional Design — Programmed Learning Cheat Sheet by

design     learning     instructional     programmed

Introd­uction

Although Sidney Pressey (1927) originated programmed learning, B. F. Skinner (1958) popula­rized it. Skinner's approach has been called linear in nature and involves the following features:
Learners are exposed to small amounts of inform­ation and proceed from one frame or one item of inform­ation, to the next in an orderly fashion (this is what is meant by linear)
Learners respond overtly so that their correct responses can be rewarded and their incorrect responses can be corrected
Learners are informed immedi­ately about whether or not their response is correct (feedback)
Learners proceed at their own pace (self-­pacing)

Linear & Branchng Programmed Learning

Line­ar: Programmed instru­ction is a method of presenting new subject matters to students in a graded sequence of controlled steps. Students work through the programmed material by themselves at their own speed and after each step test their compre­hension by answering an examin­ation question or filling in a diagram. They are then immedi­ately shown the correct answer or given additional inform­ation. Computers and other types of teaching machines are often used to present the material, although books may also be used.
Crow­der's intrinsic or Branching program: Programmed instru­ction consists of a network of statements and tests, which direct the student to new statements depending on his pattern of errors. It is based on a particular tool which is called teaching machine.

Multiple Choice Questions

After the learners have been presented a certain amount of inform­ation, they are given a multip­le-­choice question. If they answer correctly they branch to the next body of inform­ation. If they are incorrect, they are directed to additional inform­ation, depending on the mistake they made. Many CBT training courses are based on the concept of linear or branching programmed learning.
 

Diagram

Program Learning is Effective

Programmed learning has been proven to be effective (Schramm, 1964). A review of 165 studies of programmed learning was made. Of 36 studies that compared programmed learning with the more tradit­ional kinds of training, 17 found programmed instru­ction to be more effective, 18 found both kinds of instru­ction to be equally effective, and only one found tradit­ional training to be more effective.

Skinner's operant condit­ioning

Programmed instru­ction is based on Skinner's "­operant condit­ion­ing­", a (behav­iorist theory stating that learning is change in behavior, i.e. the indivi­dual's response to events (stimuli). Behavior can be condit­ioned by rewarding the right stimul­us-­res­ponse patterns.
According to Greg Kearsley:
Behavior that is positively reinforced will reoccur; interm­ittent reinfo­rcement is partic­ularly effective
Information should be presented in small amounts so that responses can be reinforced ("sh­api­ng")
Reinforcements will generalize across similar stimuli ("st­imulus genera­liz­ati­on") producing secondary condit­ioning

The archit­ectures of programmed instru­ction

Programmed instru­ction has the following core elements:
Contents are broken down into pieces of instru­ctions called frames. A frame contains statements and questions.
Learners then read the frame and immedi­ately answer a question about the frame
There is an immediate feedback about the correc­tness of the frame (usually in a different place)
Instruction is self-paced and learners are active (in the sense of reactive)

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