Organizational Behavior (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people-organization relationships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organization, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human objectives, organizational objectives, and social objectives.
Elements of Organizational Behavior
The organization's base rests on management's philosophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn, drives the organizational culture that is composed of the formal organization, informal organization, and the social environment. The culture determines the type of leadership, communication, and group dynamics within the organization. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motivation. The final outcome are performance, individual satisfaction, and personal growth and development. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organization operates from.
There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of, Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, and Collegial (Cunningham, Eberle, 1990; Davis ,1967). Recently a fifth model has been introduced.
Although there are four separate models, almost no organization operates exclusively in one. There will usually be a predominate one, with one or more areas over-lapping with the other models.
The first model, autocratic, has its roots in the industrial revolution. The managers of this type of organization operate mostly out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one best model. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.
Autocratic Model of Behavior
This model relies on the power used by a managerial authority. There is a complete dependency on the boss and employees are oriented towards obedience. Managers dominate their subordinates to perform certain jobs. Management assume they knows well what suits best to the organization and others must follow it. Some psychological effects of this model result in employees depending on their boss. The performance is relatively lower. The employees feel insecure, frustrated and aggregated towards the managers with many rejecting this model.
Performance relatively lower.
Custodial Model of Behavior
The main objective is better employees’ satisfaction and security. This model depends on the economics resources (money). Many times, managers motivate their employees by offering them benefits and facilities. But, here the employees don’t work as a team and there is less sharing. The underlying concept o f this model is managerial orientation of money where everyone depends (competes) for more benefits.
Performance thru passive cooperation.
Supportive Model of Behavior
This model's orientation is leadership with managerial support. The employees are stimulated for job performance and participation. The managers support their employees to perform better. They ensure employees get along and with employee skill are developed. It brings managers and employees closer together in a support functioning system.
Collegial Model of Behavior
The employees depend on each other, cooperate and work as a team to perform the tasks. There will be an individual self – discipline enthusiasm. There will be responsible beaver towards their tasks. The employees need is self – actualization. This model is an extension of supportive model. Accordingly to this model, the managers are not addressed as boss, avoiding psychological distance between the managers and the employees.
Performance result of moderate enthusiasm.
System Model of Behavior
An emerging model of organizational behavior which is based on trust, self – motivation. The employees are committed to perform their best to achieve organizational objectives. Employees need more than just a pay – check and job security. Accordingly to this model, the managers convince their employees that they are an important part of the organization, they care about them. Thus this establishes a friendly environment which motivates the employees making the employees to be responsible and disciplined.
Performance results can be more than expected.