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Leadership & Organizational Behavior Cheat Sheet by

leadership     behavior     organizational


Organi­zat­ional Behavior (OB) is the study and applic­ation of knowledge about how people, indivi­duals, and groups act in organi­zat­ions. It does this by taking a system approach. That is, it interprets people­-or­gan­ization relati­onships in terms of the whole person, whole group, whole organi­zation, and whole social system. Its purpose is to build better relati­onships by achieving human object­ives, organi­zat­ional object­ives, and social object­ives.

Elements of Organi­zat­ional Behavior

The organi­zat­ion's base rests on manage­ment's philos­ophy, values, vision and goals. This in turn, drives the organi­zat­ional culture that is composed of the formal organi­zation, informal organi­zation, and the social enviro­nment. The culture determines the type of leader­ship, commun­ica­tion, and group dynamics within the organi­zation. The workers perceive this as the quality of work life which directs their degree of motiva­tion. The final outcome are perfor­mance, individual satisf­action, and personal growth and develo­pment. All these elements combine to build the model or framework that the organi­zation operates from.

There are four major models or frameworks that organi­zations operate out of, Auto­cratic, Custodial, Suppor­tive, and Colleg­ial (Cunni­ngham, Eberle, 1990; Davis ,1967). Recently a fifth model has been introd­uced.

Although there are four separate models, almost no organi­zation operates exclus­ively in one. There will usually be a predom­inate one, with one or more areas over-l­apping with the other models.

The first model, autocr­atic, has its roots in the industrial revolu­tion. The managers of this type of organi­zation operate mostly out of McGregor's Theory X. The next three models build on McGregor's Theory Y. They have each evolved over a period of time and there is no one best model. In addition, the collegial model should not be thought as the last or best model, but the beginning of a new model or paradigm.

Autocratic Model of Behavior

This model relies on the power used by a managerial authority. There is a complete dependency on the boss and employees are oriented towards obedience. Managers dominate their subord­inates to perform certain jobs. Management assume they knows well what suits best to the organi­zation and others must follow it. Some psycho­logical effects of this model result in employees depending on their boss. The perfor­mance is relatively lower. The employees feel insecure, frustrated and aggregated towards the managers with many rejecting this model.
Perfor­mance relatively lower.

Organi­zation Behaviour

Custodial Model of Behavior

The main objective is better employees’ satisf­action and security. This model depends on the economics resources (money). Many times, managers motivate their employees by offering them benefits and facili­ties. But, here the employees don’t work as a team and there is less sharing. The underlying concept o f this model is managerial orient­ation of money where everyone depends (competes) for more benefits.
Perfor­mance thru passive cooper­ation.

Supportive Model of Behavior

This model's orient­ation is leadership with managerial support. The employees are stimulated for job perfor­mance and partic­ipa­tion. The managers support their employees to perform better. They ensure employees get along and with employee skill are developed. It brings managers and employees closer together in a support functi­oning system.
High perfor­mance.

Collegial Model of Behavior

The employees depend on each other, cooperate and work as a team to perform the tasks. There will be an individual self – discipline enthus­iasm. There will be respon­sible beaver towards their tasks. The employees need is self – actual­iza­tion. This model is an extension of supportive model. Accord­ingly to this model, the managers are not addressed as boss, avoiding psycho­logical distance between the managers and the employees.
Perfor­mance result of moderate enthus­iasm.

System Model of Behavior

An emerging model of organi­zat­ional behavior which is based on trust, self – motiva­tion. The employees are committed to perform their best to achieve organi­zat­ional object­ives. Employees need more than just a pay – check and job security. Accord­ingly to this model, the managers convince their employees that they are an important part of the organi­zation, they care about them. Thus this establ­ishes a friendly enviro­nment which motivates the employees making the employees to be respon­sible and discip­lined.
Perfor­mance results can be more than expected.

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