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Leadership Development Model Cheat Sheet by

development     model     leadership


The U.S. Army and the Defense Department undertook a project in the early 1990s with a project led by Mark Mumford, to explain the underlying elements of effective perfor­mance. The end product is known as a “capab­ility model” (or skill model) that frames perfor­mance as the capabi­lities (skills and knowledge) that make effective perfor­mance possible.

So rather than just collecting a bunch of tasks that the performer should be able to do, the model helps you to lay them out in a more manageable framework in order to gain an unders­tanding of what exactly makes an effective performer. The model has three compon­ents: Individual Attrib­utes, Compet­encies, and Outcomes, which feed into each other.

Capability Model

Capability Model: Individual Attributes

The Individual Attributes are composed of four attrib­utes:
General Cognitive Ability — This can be thought of as intell­igence, which is linked to biology, rather than experi­ence. While the Army conducts general entrance exams to measure the intell­igence levels of new recruits, the civilian world generally relies on other means, such as the applic­ant's educat­ional grade level to make a very rough guess on his or her intell­igence.
Crystallized Cognitive Ability — This is the intell­ectual ability that is learned or acquired over time. In most adults, this cognitive ability contin­uously grows and does not normally fall unless some sort of mental disease or illness sets in. It is composed of the concepts and mental abilities that we learn through experi­ence.
Motivation — This is the perfor­mer's willin­gness to tackle problems, exert their influence, and advance the overall human good and value of the organi­zation.
Personality — These are any charac­ter­istics (traits?) that help the performers to cope with complex organi­zat­ional situat­ions.

Capability Model: Compet­encies

There are 4 major Compet­encies are the heart of the model:
Problem-Solving Skills — The perfor­mers' creative abilities to solve unusual and ill-de­fined organi­zat­ional problems.
Social Judgment Skills — The capacity to understand people and social systems. They enable the performers to work with each other.
Knowledge — The accumu­lation of inform­ation and the mental structures used to organize that inform­ation (schema). Knowledge results from developing an assortment of complex schemata for learning and organizing data (knowledge struct­ure).
Professional Skills and Knowle­dge — The knowledge and skills critical for producing key outputs.

Performer Outcome

This refers to the degree that the person has succes­sfully performed his or her duties. It is measured by standard external criteria.

Leadership Develo­pment Model

Five Effectors

There are five Effectors on the Capability Model:
Modeling — This includes both Albert Bandura's Observ­ational Learning in which we “learn” from observing others (not merely “imitate”) and other forms of social learning in which we learn from being situated in a common enviro­nment with others.
Mentoring —The informal transm­ission of knowledge, social capital, and psycho­social support.
Coaching — Encour­aging the individual to improve job skills and knowledge.
Training/Development — Learning that is provided in order to improve perfor­mance on the present job and helping others to acquire new horizons, techno­logies, or viewpo­ints.
Feedback — The learner responds in such a way as to reverse the direction of change.

Implem­enting the Framework

During the rollout, do not get hung up with identify basic tasks, but rather compet­encies. A task is normally identified with a particular job, duty, or project; while a competency is a knowledge structure and/or related skill sets that will guide a person throughout a chosen career path.

A task basic fits in the third component of the capability model — performer outcome; while a compet­ency, along with the attrib­utes, allows ones to effect­ively perform the tasks.

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