Knowledge often comes to us via transcribed content or artifacts, which is derived from other's knowledge. These are facts, concepts, processes, procedures, and principles (Clark & Chopeta, 2004). Thus, artifacts are used in the learning process for creating knowledge, while in turn, knowledge creates new artifacts.
Theses artifacts (content) are in turn, used in the knowledge creation process to create two types of knowledge: declarative and procedural.
Declarative models refers to representations of objects and events and how these knowledge and events are related to other objects and events. They focus on the why rather than the how. It allows us to think and talk about the world. Declarative models include propositions and schemata.