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LORaWan: Long Range Network Cheat Sheet by

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Introd­uction LoRaWan

LoRaWAN™ is a Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN) specif­ication intended for wireless battery operated Things in regional, national or global network. LoRaWAN target key requir­ements of internet of things such as secure bi-dir­ect­ional commun­ica­tion, mobility and locali­zation services. This standard will provide seamless intero­per­ability among smart Things without the need of complex local instal­lations and gives back the freedom to the user, developer, businesses enabling the roll out of Internet of Things.

Commun­ication between end-de­vices & gateways

Commun­ication between end-de­vices and gateways is spread out on different frequency channels and data rates. The selection of the data rate is a trade-off between commun­ication range and message duration.

Due to the spread spectrum techno­logy, commun­ica­tions with different data rates do not interfere with each other and create a set of "­vir­tua­l" channels increasing the capacity of the gateway. LoRaWAN data rates range from 0.3 kbps to 50 kbps.

To maximize both battery life of the end-de­vices and overall network capacity, the LoRaWAN network server is managing the data rate and RF output for each end-device indivi­dually by means of an adaptive data rate (ADR) scheme.


Different classes of end-point devices

LoRaWAN has several different classes of end-point devices to address the different needs reflected in the wide range of applic­ations:

Bi-directional end-de­vices (Class A): End-de­vices of Class A allow for bi-dir­ect­ional commun­ica­tions whereby each end-de­vice's uplink transm­ission is followed by two short downlink receive windows. The transm­ission slot scheduled by the end-device is based on its own commun­ication needs with a small variation based on a random time basis (ALOHA­-type of protocol). This Class A operation is the lowest power end-device system for applic­ations that only require downlink commun­ication from the server shortly after the end-device has sent an uplink transm­ission. Downlink commun­ica­tions from the server at any other time will have to wait until the next scheduled uplink.
Bi-directional end-de­vices with scheduled receive slots (Class B): In addition to the Class A random receive windows, Class B devices open extra receive windows at scheduled times. In order for the End-device to open its receive window at the scheduled time it receives a time synchr­onized Beacon from the gateway. This allows the server to know when the end-device is listening.
Bi-directional end-de­vices with maximal receive slots (Class C): End-de­vices of Class C have nearly contin­uously open receive windows, only closed when transm­itting. Class C

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