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Marzano’s New Taxonomy Cheat Sheet by

taxonomy     marzano

Introd­uction

Marzano’s New Taxonomy is made up of three systems and the Knowledge Domain, all of which are important for thinking and learning. The three systems are the Self-S­ystem, the Metaco­gnitive System, and the Cognitive System.

When faced with the option of starting a new task, the Self-S­ystem decides whether to continue the current behavior or engage in the new activity; the Metaco­gnitive System sets goals and keeps track of how well they are being achieved; the Cognitive System processes all the necessary inform­ation, and the Knowledge Domain provides the content.

Knowledge Domain

Tradit­ion­ally, the focus of most instru­ction has been in the component of knowledge. Students were assumed to need a signif­icant amount of knowledge before they could think seriously about a subject. Unfort­una­tely, in tradit­ional classr­ooms, instru­ction rarely moved beyond the accumu­lation of knowledge, leaving students with a mental file cabinet full of facts, most of which were quickl­y-f­org­otten after the final test.

Knowledge is a critical factor in thinking. Without sufficient inform­ation about the subject being learned, the other systems have very little to work with and are unable to engineer the learning process succes­sfully. A high-p­owered automobile with all the latest techno­logical features still needs some kind of fuel to make it fill its purpose. Knowledge is the fuel that powers the thinking process. Marzano identifies three categories of knowledge: inform­ation, mental proced­ures, and physical proced­ures. Simply put, inform­ation is the “what” of knowledge and procedures are the “how-to.”

Info­rma­tion
Inform­ation consists of organizing ideas, such as princi­ples, genera­liz­ations, and details, such as vocabulary terms and facts. Principles and genera­liz­ations storie more inform­ation with less effort by placing concepts into catego­ries.
Mental Proced­ures
Mental procedures can range from complex processes, such as writing a term paper to simpler tasks such as tactics, algori­thms, and single rules. Tactics, like reading a map, consist of a set of activities which do not need to be performed in any particular order. Algori­thms, like computing long division, follow a strict order which does not vary by situation. Single rules, such as those covering capita­liz­ation, are applied indivi­dually to specific instances.
Physical Proced­ures
The degree to which physical procedures figure into learning varies greatly by subject area. The physical requir­ements necessary for reading may consist of no more than left-t­o-right eye movement and the minimal coordi­nation needed to turn a page. Conver­sely, physical and vocational education requires extensive and sophis­ticated physical processes, such as playing tennis or building a piece of furniture. Contri­buting factors to effective physical processing include strength, balance, manual dexterity, and overall speed of movement.
 

Marzano’s New Taxonomy

Cognitive System - Four Components

The mental processes in the Cognitive Domain take action from the Knowledge Domain. These processes give people access to the inform­ation and procedures in their memory and help them manipulate and use this knowledge. Marzano breaks the Cognitive System down into four compon­ents: know­ledge retrieval, compre­hen­sion, analysis, and knowledge utiliz­ati­on. Each process is composed of all the previous processes
Know­ledge Retrie­val
Like the knowledge component of Bloom’s Taxonomy, Knowledge Retrieval involves recalling inform­ation from permanent memory. At this level of unders­tan­ding, students are just recalling facts, sequences, or processes exactly as they were stored.
Comp­reh­ens­ion
Compre­hension requires identi­fying what is important to remember and placing that inform­ation into approp­riate catego­ries. Therefore, the first skill of compre­hen­sion, synthesis, requires the identi­fic­ation of the most important components of the concept and the deletion of any that are insign­ificant or extran­eous.
Analysis
More complex than simple compre­hen­sion, the 5 cognitive processes in Analysis are matching, classi­fying, error analysis, genera­lizing, and specif­ying. By engaging in these processes, learners can use what they are learning to create new insights and invent ways of using what was learned in new situat­ions.
Know­ledge Utiliz­ation
The final level of cognitive processes addresses the use of knowledge. Marzano calls these processes Knowledge Utiliz­ation, or Using Know
ledge. The processes of using knowledge are essential components of thinking for projec­t-based learning since they include processes used by to accomplish a specific task.

Metaco­gnitive System

The metaco­gnitive system is the “mission control” of the thinking process and regulates all the other systems. This system sets goals and makes decisions about which inform­ation is necessary and which cognitive processes best suit the goal. It then monitors the processes and makes changes as necessary.

Self System

Providing students with instru­ction in cognitive strate­gies, even with Metaco­gnitive skills, is not always enough to ensure that they will learn. Teachers are often pleasantly surprised to discover that a student has accomp­lished a task that they considered to be far too difficult. These situations occur because at the root of all learning is the Self-S­ystem.

Self System is comprised of the atti­tudes, beliefs and feelings that determine an indivi­dual’s motivation to complete a task. The factors contri­buting to motivation are: import­ance, efficacy, and emotio­ns.

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