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Observed Learning Outcome Taxonomy (SOLO) Cheat Sheet by

learning     solo     observed     outcomes

Introd­uction to SOLO

One model that might prove more useful is the Stru­cture of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxono­my. It describes levels of increasing complexity in a learner's unders­tanding of subjects (Biggs, Collis, 1982). It aids both trainers and learners in unders­tanding the learning process.

Order of Unders­tanding

The model consists of five levels in the order of unders­tan­ding:

Pres­tru­ctu­ral - The learner doesn't understood the lesson and uses a much too simple means of going about it—the learner is unsure about the lesson or subject.

Unis­tru­ctu­ral - The learner's response only focuses on one relevant aspect—the learner has only a basic concept about the subject.

Mult­ist­ruc­tural - The learner's response focuses on several relevant aspects but they are treated indepe­nde­ntl­y—the learner has several concepts about the subject but they are discon­nected. Assessment of this level is primarily quanti­tative.

Rela­tio­nal - The different aspects have become integrated into a coherent whole—the learner has mastered the complexity of the subject by being able to join all the parts together. This level is what is normally meant by an adequate unders­tanding of a subject.

Extended Abstract - The previous integrated whole may be concep­tua­lized at a higher level of abstra­ction and genera­lized to a new topic or area—the learner is now able to create new ideas based on her mastery of the subject.

Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes (SOLO)

ADDIE Model (Generic Instru­ctional Framework)

The ADDIE model is a framework that lists generic processes that instru­ctional designers and training developers use. It represents a descri­ptive guideline for building effective training and perfor­mance support tools in five phases.

Solo & ADDIE

SOLO not only shows the instru­ctors how the learners are progre­ssing, but also the learners themse­lves. It does this by putting the processes in squares. You start in the center square (Uni-s­tru­ctural) and work outwards (Multi­-st­ruc­tural, Relati­onal, and finally Extended Abstract).

This example shows the concept of ADDIE. It starts with learning facts and ends with being able to create a learning process or training using ADDIE.

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