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Personality Type Explained Cheat Sheet by

types     personality     cognitive     jumg     briggs-meyers


According to Carl G. Jung's theory of psycho­logical types [Jung, 1971], people can be charac­terized by their pref­erence of general attitu­de:
Extraverted (E) vs. Introv­erted (I)
their pref­erence of one of the two functions of percep­tion:
Sensing (S) vs. Intuition (N),
and their pref­erence of one of the two functions of judging:
Thinking (T) vs. Feeling (F)

The three areas of prefer­ences introduced by Jung are dich­otomies (i.e. bipolar dimens­ions where each pole represents a different prefer­ence). Jung also proposed that in a person one of the four functions above is dominant – either a function of perception or a function of judging. Isabel Briggs Myers, a researcher and practi­tioner of Jung’s theory, proposed to see the judgin­g-p­erc­eiving relati­onship as a fourth dichotomy influe­ncing person­ality type [Briggs Myers, 1980]:
Judging (J) vs. Perceiving (P)

First criterion: Extrav­ersion – Introv­ersion

Signifies the source and direction of a person’s energy expres­sion. An extrav­ert’s source and direction of energy expression is mainly in the external world, while an introvert has a source of energy mainly in their own internal world.

Second criterion: Sensing – Intuition

Represents the method by which someone perceives inform­ation. Sensing means that a person mainly believes inform­ation he or she receives directly from the external world. Intuition means that a person believes mainly inform­ation he or she receives from the internal or imagin­ative world.

Third criterion: Thinking – Feeling

Represents how a person processes inform­ation. Thinking means that a person makes a decision mainly through logic. Feeling means that, as a rule, he or she makes a decision based on emotion, i.e. based on what they feel they should do.

Fourth criterion: Judging – Perceiving

Reflects how a person implements the inform­ation he or she has processed. Judging means that a person organizes all of his life events and, as a rule, sticks to his plans. Perceiving means that he or she is inclined to improvise and explore altern­ative options.

Cognitive Functions

The 16 person­ality types

All possible permut­ations of prefer­ences in the 4 dichot­omies above yield 16 different combin­ations, or person­ality types, repres­enting which of the two poles in each of the four dichot­omies dominates in a person, thus defining 16 different person­ality types. Each person­ality type can be assigned a 4 letter acronym of corres­ponding combin­ation of prefer­ences.

The first letter in the person­ality type acronym corres­ponds to the first letter of the preference of general attitude - “E” for extrav­ersion and “I” for introv­ersion.

The second letter in the person­ality type acronym corres­ponds to the preference within the sensin­g-i­ntu­ition dimension: “S” stands for sensing and “N” stands for intuition.

The third letter in the person­ality type acronym corres­ponds to preference within the thinki­ng-­feeling pair: “T” stands for thinking and “F” stands for feeling.

The forth letter in the person­ality type acronym corres­ponds a person’s preference within the judgin­g-p­erc­eiving pair: “J” for judging and “P” for percep­tion.

For example:
ISTJ stands for Introv­erted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging
ENFP stands for Extrav­erted, iNtuitive, Feeling, Percei­ving

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