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Psychomotor Domain Taxonomies Cheat Sheet by

domain     psychomotor     taxonomies


This domain is charac­terized by progre­ssive levels of behaviors from observ­ation to mastery of a physical skill. Several different taxonomies exist. in addition to the highly popular Bloom taxonomy.

Simpson taxonomy

Simpson (1972) built this taxonomy on the work of Bloom and others:
Perception - Sensory cues guide motor activity.
Set - Mental, physical, and emotional dispos­itions that make one respond in a certain way to a situation.
Guided Response - First attempts at a physical skill. Trial and error coupled with practice lead to better perfor­mance.
Mechanism - The interm­ediate stage in learning a physical skill. Responses are habitual with a medium level of assurance and profic­iency.
Complex Overt Response - Complex movements are possible with a minimum of wasted effort and a high level of assurance they will be succes­sful.
    Adaptation - Movements can be modified for special situat­ions.
    Origination - New movements can be created for special situat­ions.

Dave taxonomy

Dave (1970) developed this taxonomy:
Imitation - Observing and copying someone else.
Manipulation - Guided via instru­ction to perform a skill.
Precision - Accuracy, proportion and exactness exist in the skill perfor­mance without the presence of the original source.
Articulation - Two or more skills combined, sequenced, and performed consis­tently.
Naturalization - Two or more skills combined, sequenced, and performed consis­tently and with ease. The perfor­mance is automatic with little physical or mental exertion.

Harrow (1972) taxonomy

Harrow (1972) developed this taxonomy. It is organized according to the degree of coordi­nation including involu­ntary responses and learned capabi­lities:
Reflex moveme­nts - Automatic reactions.
Basic fundam­ental movement - Simple movements that can build to more complex sets of movements.
Perceptual - Enviro­nmental cues that allow one to adjust movements.
Physical activi­ties - Things requiring endurance, strength, vigor, and agility.
Skilled moveme­nts - Activities where a level of efficiency is achieved.
Non-discursive commun­ica­tion - Body language.

Combin­ation of the taxonomies

1. Observing
Active mental attending of a physical event.
The learner watches a more experi­enced person. Other mental activity, such as reading may be a pert of the observ­ation process.
2. Imitat­ing
Attempted copying of a physical behavior.
The first steps in learning a skill. The learner is observed and given direction and feedback on perfor­mance. Movement is not automatic or smooth.
3. Practi­cing
Trying a specific physical activity over and over.
The skill is repeated over and over. The entire sequence is performed repeat­edly. Movement is moving towards becoming automatic and smooth.
4. Adapting
Fine tuning. Making minor adjust­ments in the physical activity in order to perfect it.
The skill is perfected. A mentor or a coach is often needed to provide an outside perspe­ctive on how to improve or adjust as needed for the situation.

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