Show Menu

The Air Force's Five Step Approach (1965) Cheat Sheet by


According to the U.S. Air Force's Instru­ctional System Develo­pment manual (1993), they developed its first major instru­ctional system in 1965. In 1970 it evolved that system into the Five-Step Approach that provides providing feedback, constr­aints, and flexib­ility.

While it is not ADDIE, it comes very close to having the look and feel of it as shown in the model displayed.

Major Phases of the Five Step Approach

1. Analyze System Requir­eme­nts: This is done through occupa­tional, job, and task analyses which result in statements of behavior, condit­ions, and standards for task perfor­mances.
2. Define Education and Training Requir­eme­nts: This step includes a needs analysis to determine if training is needed, assessment of target population charac­ter­istics, and selection of tasks for instru­ction through consid­eration of such factors as critic­ality, learning diffic­ulty, and frequency of perfor­mance.
3. Develop Objectives and Tests: The developer writes the three-part objectives that define what the students should be able to do after instru­ction, the conditions under which they may perform, and the acceptable standard of perfor­mance. The developer then writes test items to measure student perfor­mance on each objective.
4. Plan, Develop, and Validate Instru­cti­on: In this step, the developer designs and produces course materials. The developer tries these materials out on students using the criterion test items to ensure that the students can achieve course object­ives.
5. Conduct and Evaluate Instru­cti­on: The course is fielded. Evaluation of instru­ctional effect­iveness continues for the life of the course and identifies needs that may develop for improving or updating the instru­ction.

The Five-Step Approach Model

Feedback and Constr­aints

The model shows
1) how the ISD process uses feedback and intera­ction among the functional blocks of activities to allow for continuous improv­ements to the products, and
2) how enviro­nmental constr­aints limit the designers' choices to what is possible.


The process allowed instru­ctional developers to enter or reenter the steps of the ISD process as necessary to develop, update, or revise the instru­ctional system. The Air Force model worked well and was considered adequate. It supported an instru­ctional system that was focused primarily on classroom education and technical training delivered by an instructor using the lectur­e/d­emo­nst­ration method.

Download the The Air Force's Five Step Approach (1965) Cheat Sheet

1 Page

PDF (recommended)

Alternative Downloads

Share This Cheat Sheet!



No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          More Cheat Sheets by Davidpol

          How Much to Tip Cheat Sheet
          CMS F-Tags and Regulatory Groups Cheat Sheet