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The Yale Approach - Overview Cheat Sheet by

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The Yale Approach - Overview Persuasion

William McGuire (perhaps best known for his inocul­ation theory, on how to create resistance to persua­sion) proposed a model of attitude change that helps understand the Yale approach to persua­sion. McGuire’s (1968) model of the persuasion process includes six steps (sometimes it is described as five steps, omitting “Prese­nta­tion”):

William McGuire Model

Pres­ent­ation > Attention > Compre­hension > Yielding > Retention > Behavior

Pres­ent­ation / Exposure
The term for the persuasive message.

Atte­ntion / Awaren­ess
People cannot be persuaded by a message they ignore, so once the message is "­Pre­sen­ted­" to the audience the next step in the persuasion process is paying “Atten­tion.”

Comp­reh­ension / Unders­tan­ding
The Receivers (in the audience) must understand the message before it will influence their attitudes.

Yielding / Accept­ance
Is the term for "­Acc­ept­anc­e", the point at which the Receiver accepts the message and their attitude change. When a persuasive message succeeds at changing a listener’s mind (attit­udes), Receiver has yielded to the message.

How long the attitude change lasts.

Behavior / Action
“Behavior” to be the ultimate goal of persuasive discourse. Changing one's behavior based on the Persuasion message.

Yale Model

Action - Behavior Modifi­cation

McGuire considered “Modifier Behavior” to be the ultimate goal of persua­sive. Look at the persuasion surrou­nding us -- sales messages advert­ising goods and services, political messages asking us to vote for politi­cians, public service messages urging us not to drink and drive - persuasion often has action as its goal.
Note: Attitudes do change; if they were permanent, we couldn’t hope to change them with persuasive messages. But since attitudes do change, that means when we succeed at changing someone’s attitude, that change may not last forever -- other persuasive messages or experi­ences could change their "­Att­itu­de" again.

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