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Nginx basics Cheat Sheet by

nginx

Install with apt, yum

#for ubuntu
sudo apt-get update -y & sudo apt-get install -y nginx & sudo systemctl enable nginx & sudo systemctl start nginx
#for Centos
sudo yum update -y & sudo yum install -y epel-release & sudo yum install -y nginx & sudo systemctl enable nginx & sudo systemctl start nginx

Creating a Virtual Hosts

# make copy of /etc/nginx/nginx.conf and begin edit current conf file
server{
listen 80;
server_name 192.168.1.1
root /sites/demo
}

file types/ mime.types

#in http section
include mime.types;
types{
text/css css;
text/http http;
}

Locations

#Preferential prefix match
location ^~ /hello {
return 200 'Hello';
}
#exact match
location = /hello {
return 200 'Hello';
}
#regex match - case sensitive
location ~ /hello[1-9] {
return 200 'Hello';
}
#regex match - case insensitive
location ~* /hello[1-9] {
return 200 'Hello';
}

buffers and Timeouts

#Buffer size for POST submissions
client_body_buffer_size 10K;
client_max_body_size 8m;
#Buffer size for HEADERS
client_header_buffer_size 1K;
#MAX time to receive client headers/body
client_body_timeout 12;
client_header_timeout 12;
#MAX time to keep a connection open for
keepalive_timeout 15;
#MAX time for client accept/receive a response
send_timeout 10;
#skip buffering for static files
sendfile 10;
#optimize sendfile packets
tcp_nopush 10;
 

Source code build

sudo apt-get update -y
wget http://nginx.org/download/nginx_cur_ver.tar.gz
tar -zxvf nginx_cur_ver.tar.gz
#for ubuntu#
sudo apt-get install -y build-essential #install builder
sudo apt-get install -y libpcre3 libpcre3-dev zlib1g zlib1g-dev libssl-dev
#for centos#
sudo yum install -y groupinstall "Development Tools"
sudo yum install -y pcre pcre-devel zlib zlib-devel openssl openssl-devel
# in unpacked location
./configure --help
sudo ./configure --sbin-path=/usr/bin/nginx --conf-path=/etc/nginx/nginx.conf --error-log-path=/var/log/nginx/error.log --http-log-path=/var/log/nginx/access.log --with-pcre --pid-path=/var/run/nginx.pid --with-http_ssl_module
sudo make & sudo make install & nginx -V

Variables

set $weekend 'No';
if ($date_local ~ 'Saturday|Sunday'){
set $weekend 'Yes';}
$host, $http_host, $https, $request_method, $request_uri, $scheme, $server_name, $server_port, $args, $arg_name, $uri

Rewrites & Redirects

# Simple redirect
location /logo{
  return 307 /logo.png;
}
#simple rewrite
rewrite ^/user/(\w+)/(something) /greet/$1 $2;
rewrite ^/rewriteme/(.*)$ /$1 last;

try_files

root /var/www/main;
try_files $uri $uri.html $uri/ /fallback/index.html;

dynamic modules

load_module modules/nginx_http_image_filter_module.so;
http{server{location=logo.png{image_filter rotate 180;}}}

header­s&­expires

location ~* \.(jpg|png|js) {
access_log off;
add_header Cache-Control public;
add_header Pragma public;
add_header Vary Accept-Encoding;
expires 1M;}
 

Adding nginx service if source­-code

Create file /lib/systemd/system/nginx.service
add and edit for current passes:
[Unit]
Description=The NGINX HTTP and reverse proxy server
After=syslog.target network.target remote-fs.target nss-lookup.target
[Service]
Type=forking
PIDFile=/run/nginx.pid
ExecStartPre=/usr/sbin/nginx -t
ExecStart=/usr/sbin/nginx
ExecReload=/usr/sbin/nginx -s reload
ExecStop=/bin/kill -s QUIT $MAINPID
PrivateTmp=true
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

PHP Processing

sudo apt-get update -y & sudo apt-get -y install php-fpm & sudo enable php7.2-fpm
user www-data
server{
index index.php index.html;
 location / {
   try_files $uri $uri/ =404;
 }
 location ~\.php${
   #pass php request to the php-fpm service(fastcgi)
   include fastcgi.conf
   fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock
 }
}

worker­_pr­ocesses

worker_processes auto;
events {
    worker_connections 1024;}
# yuo can test connection_per_core limit by 'ulimit -n' command
pid /var/run/new_nginx.pid;

Compressed Responses with gzip

http{
gzip on;
gzip_comp_level 4;
gzip_types /text/css /text/javascript;}

FASTCGI Cache

#configure microcache (fastcgi)
fastcgi_cache_path /tmp/nginx/cache levels=1:2 keys_zone=ZONE_1:100m inactive=60m;
fastcgi_cache_key "$scheme$request_method$host$request_uri";
add_header X-Cache $upstream_cache_status;
location ~\.php$ {
include fastcgi.conf;
fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.2-fpm.sock;
#enabling cahe
fastcgi_cahe ZONE_1;
fastcgi_cahe_valid 200 60m;
fastcgi_cahe_valid 404 10m;
}

LoadBa­lla­ncing

upstream balanser {
   server 192.168.1.1:80;
   server 192.168.1.2:80;}
server {
   listen 192.168.1.3:80;
   server_name your_site.com;
   error_log /var/log/nginx/your_site.com_error.log;
   location / {
      proxy_pass http://balancer;
   }
}
ip_hash; # freeze connection from one host to one server
least_conn; # connection to server with less-loading

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