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BIOL 101: Exam 1 Cheat Sheet by

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Properties of Life

order
reprod­uction
growth and develo­pment
energy processing
regulation
response to the enviro­nment
evolut­ionary adaptation

Prokar­yotic vs. Eukaryotic Cell

DNA
nucleus
 
cell membrane
cell wall
cytoplasm
ribosomes
mitoch­ondria
 
organisms
bacteria
plants, animals, fungi, protists

Formation of Macrom­ole­cules

monomer
beads
polymers
necklace
dehydr­ation
create necklace, water produced
hydrolysis
take necklace apart, water consumed

Carboh­ydrates

monomer
monosa­cch­aride
polymer
polysa­cch­aride
bonded by
covalent bonds
purpose
energy and storage
ETC
hydrop­hilic

Carboh­ydrate (-sacc­har­ides)

mono
di
poly
glucose
lactose
starch
fructose
sucrose
glycogen
galactose
maltose
cellulose
  
chitin

Storage and Energy

 
plants
animals
energy storage
starch
glycogen
structure
cellulose
chitin

Polysa­cch­arides

maltose
glucose + glucose
sucrose
glucose + fructose
lactose
glucose + galactose
cellulose
glucose
starch
glucose
Starch is a chain of glucose. Cellulose is made of multiple chains of glucose with hydrogen bonding to connect the chains.

The G Things

glycerol (lipids)
ALL fatty acids
glycogen (polys­acc­haride)
Jenna needs energy, made of glucose
glucagon (protein)
sugar in the blood is GONE

Endosy­mbiont theory

Mitoch­ondria and chloro­plasts were formerly small prokar­yotes that began living within larger cells, may have gained entry as undigested prey or parasites. In a world that was increa­singly aerobic, host benefited from endosy­mbiont that could use oxygen to create energy. This led to the formation of a eukaryotic cell with a mitoch­ondria. Plant cells were developed from eukaryotic cells with photos­ynt­hetic prokar­yote.

Structural Protein

What structural protein is secreted outside of cells making up 40% of the protein in your body?
collagen

Diabetes

Type 1
insulin isn't produced, beta pancreatic cells damaged
Type 2
insuli­n/g­lucose receptors not working
Hyperg­lycemia (high blood sugar), hypogl­ycemia (low blood sugar). Antagonist to insulin is glucagon.

Tonic Solutions

Convert all %s to describe solvent, think about concen­tration gradient of solvent.
Hypertonic - full of things
Hypotonic - empty of things

Membrane Transport

What kind of materials can travel through membrane passively?
Non-polar molecules and water.

Steroid Hormones

Why can steroid hormones pass through membranes?
non-polar

Phosph­ory­lation

Phosph­ory­lation is the transfer of a phosphate from ATP to another molecule.
 

Hierarchy of Organi­zation

atom
organ system
molecule
organism
organelle
population
cell
community
tissue
ecosystem
organ
biosphere
Community is a bunch of popula­tions, ecosystem is those popula­tions and abiotic factors.

Domains and Kingdoms

Lipids

monomer
fatty acids, glycerol
polymer
none
purpose
long-term energy storage
ETC
hydrop­hobic
Saturated fats are found in animals, unsatu­rated found in plants and is healthier. Trans fat is structured like a unsatu­rated fat, but straig­htened like a saturated fat.
Head of phosph­olipid is hydrop­hilic, tail hydrop­hilic. Fats are more concen­trated amounts of energy than carboh­ydr­ates.

Proteins

monomer
amino acids (different R groups)
polymer
polype­ptide, enzyme
bonded by
peptide bonds
ETC
shape determines function
Destroyed via denatu­ration. Must be in specific temp and pH.

Protein Structure

primary
chain (covalent bonds)
secondary
alpha helix, beta sheet (hydrogen bonds)
tertiary
3D shape
quarte­rnary
multiple chains

Lysosomes

Digestion, disposal and recycling of material. Malfun­ction can result in Tay-Sachs disease.

Chloro­plasts

stroma
thick fluid
thylakoid
chips
granum
stack

Cytosk­eleton

 
microt­ubules
microf­ila­ments
interm­ediate filaments
structure
straight, hollow tubes
solid rods
superc­oiled cables
protein subunit
tubulin
actin
fibrous proteins
 
thickest
thinnest
function
shape and support cell tracks along which organelles with motor proteins move, flagella and cilia
form 3D network inside plasma membrane, supporting cell shape
reinforce cell shape, anchor organelles
 
rapidly disass­emble
 
permanent

Stages of Hormone Signaling

1. Reception
2. Signal transd­uction
3. Response

Water/­Lip­id-­Soluble Hormone Signaling

Enzyme

Enzymes are selective in the reaction it catalyzes. It can be a protein or RNA. The specific reactant it acts on is the substrate, which fits into the active site on the enzyme. Cofactors are helps that bind to the active site and function in catalysis. Coenzymes are organic cofactors. This speeds up reactions.
Compet­itive inhibitors block the active site whereas noncom­pet­itive inhibitors reshape the enzyme.

Cellular Respir­ation

glycolysis
cytoplasm, 2 net ATP
pyruvate oxidation
0 ATP
citric acid cycle
matrix, 2 ATP
oxidative phosph­ory­lation
inner mitoch­ondrial membrane, ~28 ATP
 

Major Themes of Biology

emergent properties of life's hierarchy & systems that arise
structure and function
exchange of matter and energy
evolution

Theory, Hypoth­esis, Law

Theory - widely accepted explan­atory idea that is supported by a body of evidence
Hypothesis - testable explan­ation for a set of observ­ations based on the available data
Law - statement based on repeated experi­mental observ­ations that describes some aspect of the universe
Law describes, theory and hypothesis explain.

Reasoning

Deductive: general --> specific
Inductive: specific --> general
Sherlock utilizes inductive reasoning. He's in the "­in" and knows the details.

Nucleic Acids

monomer
nucleo­tides
polymer
nucleic acids, DNA, RNA
bonded by
hydrogen bonds (form helix), covalent bonds (form backbone)
purpose
genetic info

Nucleus

contains genetic inform­ation, DNA
direct protein synthesis, contro­lling cell's acticities
chromatin - complex of proteins and DNA
nuclear envelope - double membrane enclosing nucleus
nucleolus - where rRNA is synthe­sized

Ribosomes

free ribosome
proteins that function w/in cytosol
bound ribosome
proteins that are inserted into membranes, packaged in certain organe­lles, exported from cell

Mitoch­ondria Diagram

Endome­mbrane System

nuclear envelope
endopl­asmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
lysosome
vacuole
plasma membrane

Smooth & Rough ER

smooth ER
variety of metabolic processes, synthesis of lipids, process harmful substa­nces, storage of calcium ions
rough ER
secrete proteins, makes membranes

Functions of Cell Structures

genetic
manufa­cture, distri­bution
energy
structural support, movement, commun­ication

Aquaporins

What if a cell has too many aquapo­rins?
Too much water will be absorbed, body tissues will swell.

Exocytosis & Endocy­tosis

Types of Endocy­tosis

Phagoc­ytosis takes in large molecules, taking them to lysosome via vacuole. Recept­or-­med­iated endocy­tosis takes in specific solutes, forming a vacuole and then releasing the solute into cytoplasm.

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