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Homeostasis 2 Cheat Sheet by

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Hormones

Horm­ones
chemical signals produced by endocrine glands and released into blood
Func­tions
maintain homeos­tasis, and regulate energy use, metabo­lism, and growth
Protein Hormones
short peptide sequences. water soluble, can't pass through cell membrane. Bonds to receptor on surface of target cell. Triggers signal transd­uction pathway.
Protein Hormone Mechan­ism
signal from hormone amplified and sent through cell.
Steroid Hormones
made from choles­terol. Insoluble in water. Targets cell by diffusion through cell membrane, binds to receptor in cytoplasm or nucleus. Turns genes on or off
Feedback Mechan­ism
Hypoth­alamus releases hormone that acts on pituitary gland, which releases 2nd hormone that stimulates other endocrine glands to release hormones. Final hormone targets certain tissues and inhibits pituitary from releasing more.

Pituitary Gland

Pitu­itary Gland
base of hypoth­alamus. 2 parts.
Post­erior Pituitary Gland
extension of hypoth­alamus. Same hormones as hypoth­alamus ( ADH and Oxytocin )
Anterior Pituitary Gland
separate from hypoth­alamus. makes its own set of hormones that the hypoth­alamus can stimulate or inhibit
Growth Hormone
Stim­ulates Growth (hyper­trophy, increases cells size and volume). Stim­ulates Cell Reprod­uct­ion (increased mitosis).. Stim­ulates Cell Metabo­lism (increase protein synthesis and glycogen and fat breakdown)
Growth Hormone Cont.
secreted in bursts during sleep. Production declines with age.
 

Growth Hormone Disorders

Dwar­fism
deficiency in child's GH secretion during develo­pment
Giga­ntism
overpr­odu­ction of GH during develo­pment. Poor blood flow. Tumor formed by pituitary.
Acro­meg­aly
increased GH as an adult. Bone thickens.

Thyroid Gland

Loca­tion
Base of neck
Main Hormone
Thyroxine (T4) ..looses iodine atom- T3
Func­tions
increases protein synthesis, glucose metabo­lism, and oxygen consum­ption. Regulates growth and tissue differ­ent­iation.

Thyroid Regulation

Stim­ulus
Decrease in metabolic rate detected by hypoth­alamus
Effect
Hypoth­alamus releases thyroid releasing hormon­e.... Anterior Pituitary Gland releases thyroid stimul­ating hormon­e.... Thyroid releases T4, which acts on body cells
Result
increase in metabolic rate

Thyroid Disorders

Hype­rth­yro­idism
overactive thyroid, doesn't always mean extra T4.
 
Weight loss, increased heat release, swollen neck
 
Grave's Disease - antibody targets TSH receptors stimulates TSH secretion. Bugged eyes.
 

Neuroh­ormone Pathway

stimulus signals hypoth­alamus
hypoth­alamus produces hormones that act directly on target cells w/o stimul­ating endocrine glands
hormones released by hypoth­alamus are neuroh­ormones
they travel along nerve cells and through blood stream until they reach the pituitary gland

Blood Glucose Regulation

Panc­reas
secretes antago­nistic hormones insulin and glucagon to main glucose levels
 
Islet of Langer­hans - ( Alpha Cells - Glucagon ) ( Beta Cells - Insulin )
Insu­lin
stimulated by high blood glucose levels. Insulin released and taken by glucose in blood. Liver converts glucose to glycogen for storage
Gluc­agon
stimulated by low blood glucose levels. Glucagon released by pancreas to breakdown glycogen.

Blood Glucose Regulation Diseases

Diabetes Mellitus
type 1 and type 2. Frequent urination
 
hyperg­lyc­aemia, excessive hunger, kidneys excrete glucose - sweet urine, persistent thirst
Type I
Insulin Defici­ency. Born With. Immune system attacks insulin producing cells
*Type II
Insulin Resist­ance. Based on life style.

Blood Glucose Regulation Diseases

Diabetes Mellitus
type 1 and type 2. Frequent urination
 
hyperg­lyc­aemia, excessive hunger, kidneys excrete glucose - sweet urine, persistent thirst
Type I
Insulin Defici­ency. Born With. Immune system attacks insulin producing cells
*Type II
Insulin Resist­ance. Based on life style.

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