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FLUID VOLUME DEFICIT (FVD) Cheat Sheet by

fluid     volume     nursing     medical     healthcare     deficit     fvd

FLUID VOLUME DEFICIT

Fluid intake is less than needed to meet body requir­ements
The most common type is isotonic dehydr­ation

CONT­RUB­UTING FACTORS

Excess GI and/or renal loss
Diapho­resis
Fever
Long term NPO status
Hemorrhage
Insuff­icient intake
Burns
Diuretic therapy
Aging: older adults have less body water and decreased thirst sensation
 

MANI­FES­TAT­IONS

Weight loss
Dry mucous membranes
Increased HR & respir­ations
Thready pulse
Capillary refill less than 3 sec
Weakness, fatigue
Orthos­tatic hypote­nsion
Poor skin turgor
LATE SIGNS: oliguria, decreased central venous pressure (CVP), flattened neck veins

DIAG­NOSTIC PROCED­URES

Serum electr­olytes, BUN, creati­nine, Hct (can be high due to hemoco­nce­ntr­ation)
Urine: specific gravity and osmolarity
 

MEDI­CAT­IONS

Electr­olyte replac­ement
Intrav­enous fluids

NURSING INTERV­ENT­IONS

Monitor vital signs, pulse quality & amplitude
Monitor skin turgor. In older adults, check skin over sternum or forehead.
Maintain strict I&O. Output should be at least 0.5 mL/kg/hr.
Weight pt daily
Monitor laboratory data
Correct underlying cause
Increase oral fluid intake. Initiate oral rehydr­ation solution.
Maintain IV fluids for severe dehydr­ation as prescribed
Monitor response to therapy
Initiate fall precau­tions

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