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Hypokalemia & Hyperkalemia Cheat Sheet by

hyperkalemia     hypokalemia     electrolytes     imbalances     nursinginterventions     riskfactors     manifestations

HYPOKA­LEMIA: Risk Factors

Excessive diapho­resis
Adverse effects of medica­tions
Body fluid loss
Kidney disease
Cortic­ost­eroids
Vomiting
Dietary deficiency
Diuretics
Diarrhea
Alkalosis
Digitalis
Wound drainage
 
Laxatives (abuse of)
Nasoga­stric suction

HYPOKA­LEMIA: Manife­sta­tions

Muscle weakness, cramping
Fatigue
Nausea, vomiting
Irrita­bility, confusion
Decreased bowel motility
Parest­hesia
Dysrhy­thmias
Flat and/or inverted T waves (ECG)

HYPOKA­LEMIA: Nursing Interv­entions

Monitor respir­atory status
Initiate fall precau­tions
Initiate and monitor potassium replac­ement (oral, IV)
Monitor ECG
Monitor I&O
Monitor arterial HCO3 and pH
Reinforce client teaching: dietary sources, medica­tions

HYPOKA­LEMIA: Notes

NEVER give K+ IV bolus. MUST dilute.
"No P = No K." If the client is not urinating, do NOT administer potassium.
 

HYPERK­ALEMIA: Risk Factors

Renal failure
Adrenal insuff­iciency
Acidosis
Excessive potassium intake
Medica­tions: potass­ium­-sp­aring diuretics, ACE inhibitors

HYPERK­ALEMIA: Manife­sta­tions

Peaked T-waves (ECG)
Ventri­cular dysrhy­thmias
Muscle twitching and parest­hesia (early)
Increased bowel motility
Ascending muscle weakness (late)

HYPERK­ALEMIA: Nursing Interv­entions

Admi­nister medica­tions
Monitor ECG
Kayexalate (monitor bowel sounds)
Monitor bowel sounds
50% glucose with insulin
Initiate dialysis
Calcium gluconate
Dietary restri­ction and teaching
Bicarb­onate
Loop diuretics

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