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Therapeutic and Modified Diets Cheat Sheet by

soft     nursing     medical     full     protein     mechanical     healthcare     diets     fat     clear     liquid     sodium     calcium     potassium     pureed     bland     cholesterol     iron

Clear-­Liquid Diet

Consists of products that are liquid at room temper­atu­re:
Indi­cat­ions:
Primarily water
Resting the GI tract
Tea
Mainta­ining fluid balance
Coffee
Immediate postop­erative period
Broth
Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Carbonated beverages
Prepar­ation for diagnostic testing
Clear juices
Gelatin
Limited caffeine due to risk of dehydr­ation

Short term basis only; nutrit­ionally inadequate

Full-L­iquid Diet

Consists of:
Indi­cat­ions:
Clear liquids
Advance to this if tolerates clear liquids
Milk products: milk, custard, pudding, creamed soups, ice cream/­she­rbert
Intole­rance to solid foods
Strained fruits, vegeta­bles, & cereal
Febrile illness
 
Acute gastritis

Pureed Diet

Consists of:
Indi­cat­ions:
Food and fluids that have been pureed to a thick liquid form
Transition from full liquid to regular diet
Scrambled eggs
Swallowing or chewing diffic­ulties
Pureed meats, vegeta­bles, fruits
Oral/f­acial surgery
Consis­tency varies with client needs

Soft Diet (Bland or Low-Fiber)

Consists of:
Indi­cat­ions:
Low fiber
Transition from liquid to regular diet
Lightly seasoned
Acute infections
Easily digested
Chewing diffic­ulties
Smooth & creamy
Gastric or duodenal ulcers
Non-ga­s-f­orming
(avoid cereals, beans, fruits, & veggies)

Mechanical Soft Diet

Foods to exclude:
Indi­cat­ions:
Consists of foods that require minimal chewing:
Dried fruits
Chewing or swallowing difficulty
Ground or finely diced meat
Most raw fruits & veggies
Head, neck, or mouth surgery
Canned fruits
Nuts and food with seeds
Intestinal stricture
Softly cooked veggies
 
Following CVA
Cheese
  
Rice
  
Light bread
 

Low-Pr­otein Diet

Limit high protein foods
Indi­cat­ions:
Meats
Hepatic enceph­alo­pathy
Eggs
Hepatic coma
Milk & milk products
Renal impairment
Beans
Other dietary consid­era­tio­ns:
Increase carboh­ydrates to meet nutrit­ional needs
Limit sodium in presence of edema or ascites

High-P­rotein Diet

Enco­urage high biological value (HBV protein)
Indi­cat­ions:
Egg whites (gold standard)
Tissue repair and building
Soy products
Burns
Milk products
Malabs­orption syndromes
Fish & fowl
Pregnancy
Organ and meat sources
Encourage oral fluids to decrease damage to renal capill­aries as a result of increased protein.

Diet for Alteration in Amino-Acid Metabolism

Use for phenyl­ket­onuria (PKU), galact­osemia, and lactose intole­rance
Dietary restri­ctions are aimed at reducing or elimin­ating the offending enzyme
Avoid milk & milk products for all three diets; include soy-based supple­ments
Supplement calcium and vitamin D in those who have lactose restricted or eliminated diets
PKU:
Avoid high protein foods (meats, dairy products, eggs)
 
Avoid aspartame (because it contains phenyl­ala­nine)
Gala­cto­sem­ia:
The simple sugar in lactose must be avoided

Low-Ch­ole­sterol Diet

Indi­cat­ions:
Limit animal products that are high in low-de­nsity lipopr­oteins, saturated fats, and trans fats:
Enco­urage HDLs, omega-3 fatty acids, and unsatu­rated fats:
Cardio­vas­cular disease
Egg yolks
Sardines
Diabetes mellitus
Organ meats
Salmon
Hyperl­ipi­demia
Fatty meats (such as bacon)
Olive & flaxseed oils
 
Whole milk
Shellfish
 
Butter
Walnuts
  
Fruits & veggies
  
Lean meats
  
Skinless fowl
 

Modifi­ed-Fat Diet

Indi­cat­ions:
Foods allowed:
Foods to avoid:
Gallbl­adder disease
Two to three eggs per week
Whole milk products
Hepatic disorders
Lean meat, fowl, fish
Gravies, creams
Cystic fibrosis
Fruits & veggies
Fatty meat & fish
Malabs­orption syndrome
Bread & cereal
Nuts & chocolate
  
Polyun­sat­urated oils

Potass­ium­-Mo­dified Diets

Low-­pot­assium foods:
High­-po­tassium foods:
Breads
Bananas
Cereals
Oranges
Asparagus
Milk
Cabbage
Spinach
Cherries
Apricots & prunes
Blackb­erries & bluebe­rries
Soy, lima, and kidney beans
 
Baked potatoes (white and sweet)

Sodium­-Re­str­icted Diets

Indi­cat­ions:
High­-sodium foods:
Hypert­ension
Salty snack foods (such as potato chips)
Heart failure
Canned soups & veggies
Myocardial infarction
Baked goods that contain baking powder or baking soda
Adrenal cortical diseases
Processed meats (bologna, ham, bacon)
Kidney disease
Dairy products, especially cheese
Liver cirrhosis
Pickles, olives
Pre-ec­lampsia
Soy sauce, steak sauce
 
Salad dressings

Iron Altera­tions

Increased iron intake is indicated for correction or prevention of iron deficiency anemia, which is most likely to occur in infants, adoles­cents, and pregnant clients
Food sources high in iron: fish, meats (parti­cularly organ meats), green leafy vegeta­bles, enriched breads, cereals and macaroni products, whole grain products, dried fruits (raisins, apricots), and egg yolks
Vitamin C enhances absorption of iron from the GI tract

Oral iron supple­men­tation can cause consti­pation and GI distress, so adequate iron intake through foods is ideal

Calcium Altera­tions

Increased calcium intake is indicated for growing children and adoles­cents, pregnant and lactating clients, and postme­nop­ausal clients (to help prevent osteop­orosis and osteop­enia)
Food sources high in calcium: milk, milk products (yogurt, cheese); dark green vegetables (collard greens, kale, broccoli); dried beans and peas; shellfish and canned salmon; and antacids
No more than 600 mg calcium can be absorbed at one time, so supple­ments should be taken three times daily.
No more than 2,500 mg of calcium should be consumed per day.

Vitamin D is required for absorption of calcium from the GI tract.

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