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AP Biology Unit 1: Biochemistry Cheat Sheet by

Ch 3: Water; Ch 4: Carbon; Ch 5: Large Biomolecules; Ch 8: Metabolism
water     biology     biochemistry     metabolism     carbon     macromolecules     enzymes

Properties of Water

Polarity:
- allows cohesion, adhesion, surface tension
High Specific Heat:
- resists temp change
- high heat of vapori­zation
- allows evapor­ative cooling (high energy particles vaporize)
Universal Solvent:
- dissolves hydrop­hil­ic/­repels hydrop­hobic

Properties of Carbon

tetrav­alence
4 bonds-­>co­mplex molecules
hydroc­arbons
C and H, release energy
structural isomer
differs in covalent arrang­ement of atoms
geometric isomer
differs in spacial arrang­ements around double bonds
enantiomer
mirror image of 4 molecules attached to asymmetric carbon

Functional Groups

-OH
hydroxyl
polar/­hyd­rop­hilic
-CH3
methyl
nonpol­ar/­hyd­rop­hobic
-COOH
carboxyl
polar/­hyd­rop­hilic
-COH
carbonyl
polar/­hyd­rop­hilic
-NH2
amino
polar/­hyd­rop­hilic
-SH
sulfhydryl
nonpol­ar/­hyd­rop­hobic
-PO4
phosphate
polar/­hyd­rop­hilic

Acids and Bases

Acid
increases H+ in solution
Base
reduces H+ in solution (accepts H+or donates OH-)
pH
=-log[H+]
Buffer
accept­s/d­onates H+ to stabilize pH
 

Metabolism

metabolic pathway
a specific molecule that is altered in defined steps catalyzed by enzymes that result in a certain product
catabolic pathway
releases energy by breaking down complex molecules
anabolic pathway
consumes energy to build more complex molecules
energy
the capacity to cause change or rearrange matter

Isomers

Laws of Thermo­dyn­amics

1st Law of Thermo­dyn­amics
energy can be transf­erred and transf­ormed but not created or destroyed
2nd Law of Thermo­dyn­amics
every energy transf­er/­tra­nsf­orm­ation increases the entropy of the universe; a process must increase entropy to be sponta­neous

Free Energy

Gibbs free energy- ΔG=ΔH-TΔS
energy in a temp/p­ressure constant system that can perform work
exergonic
has a net release of free energy (-ΔG)
endergonic
absorbs free energy (+ΔG)
ATP
ribose, adenine, 3 phosphate groups
hydrolyzed to ADP+Pᵢ
phosphorylated molecu­les­=more reactive
 

Large Biomol­ecules

Carboh­ydrates
-monos­acc­harides held by glycosidic linkages
-energy storage, structure, protection
Lipids
-fatty acids held by ester linkages
-hydrophobic, satura­ted­/un­sat­urated, hormones
Nucleic Acids
-nucle­otides held by phosph­odi­ester H-bonds
-enable reprod­uction, controls protein synthesis
Proteins
-amino acids held by peptide bonds
-follow varied instru­ctions from DNA

Enzymes

Enzymes
these macrom­ole­cules act as catalysts that lower activation energy barriers by forming an induced fit w/subs­trate in the active site
Enzyme Activation
-gene regula­tion= enzymes produced when needed
-activators=cofactors (inorg­anic) and coenzymes (organic) make up and help enzymes function
Enzyme Inhibition
-compe­tit­ive­=in­hibitor molecule binds to active site to block substrate
-allosteric=inhibitor molecule binds to allosteric site to cover or change shape of the active site
Optimal Conditions
-enzymes have optimal temp+pH
-cofactors+coenzymes bind to enzyme or substrate

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