Military conquest and the establishment of political control
trade, investment, and business activities that enabled imperial powers to profit form subject societies and influence their affairs without going to the trouble of exercising direct political power
What countries were involved?
North America, Chile, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa. Settled and created colonies. Colonies in India, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. Officials established political control and controlled domestic and foreign policy
Why Europeans expand?
imperial expansion and colonial domination were crucial for the survival of their societies
What did they get from expanding what materials?
Raw materials, rubber, tin, copper, petroleum
What killed people?
Deadly diseases (malaria)
What did Africa offer for Europeans?
Palm Oil: used for industries, gold and diamonds
What country and What did Africa offer for Great Britain?
Egypt, New Cotton, and an all water route to india. in 1869 Sues Canal
How was this possible for Europe to succeed?
Steamships, railroads, canals, powerful weapons, telegraph
How much territory was conquered world wide?
1870-1914 Europeans conquered an estimated 10 million square miles of territory world wide
How many people were brought under European control?
Between 1870-1914 Brought an estimated 150 million people under their authority worldwide
Europeans controlled and estimated 84% of all land on Earth
Who was the first country to establish colonies in Africa?
Portuguese with docking and trading post
What were the first 3 colonies in Africa?
Angola (Portuguese), Mauritania (Portuguese), Cape Colony (Dutch)
After the Scramble for Africa what two Africa Colonies were independent?
Ethiopia and Liberia
What was the "scramble for Africa"?
When all the Europeans were claiming territory in Africa
Why did Ethiopia not taken under control?
They won the war against Italy in 1895-1896
How did Ethiopia beat Italy?
They got weapons from the French because they hated Italy but Ethiopia also had a strong military
How did Liberia gain their independence?
Liberia was conquered by America, Slaves they had become free were sent to Liberia and therefore Liberia had the support of Americans
why was Africa called a "white mans burden"?