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WJEC A2 Computing Unit 3.9 Cheat Sheet by

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Personal Data

Personal Privacy
Data is being collected regardless of whether we consented
Data Security
It could be dangerous if the data that has been collected is used malici­ously by unauth­orized users.
Misuse of Data
Data is frequently sold to other organi­zations for other uses.
Big Brother
Privacy is a basic human right that excessive survei­llance can violate.
Prof­iling
Large organi­zations may build up data on an individual regardless of whether they consent to it or even use the service.

Data Protection Act

Any organi­zation which stores personal data must register with the Info­rmation Commis­sio­ner.
Data must be:
1. Lawfully processed
2. Processed for limited purposes
3. Not excessive
4. Accurate
5. Not kept longer than necessary
6. Not in violation of the user's rights
7. Held securely
8. Not transf­erred outside the EU unless the country has adequate data protection laws.

Freedom of Inform­ation Act

This gives indivi­duals the right to requ­est certain types of data from government entities such as hospitals, police or schools.

Copyright, Designs and Patents Act

This gives creators more control over how their creations are used in terms of copying or adapting them without permis­sion.
 

BCS Code of Conduct

The BCS Code of Conduct is a code of ethics that indivi­duals and organi­zations should follow. Breaches of this code may make it difficult for the person to find work or keep their job. Being a member of the Br­itish Co­mputer So­ciety involves following this code.
1. Act in the public interest.
2. Have a duty to the organi­zation they work for.
3. Have a duty to the profes­sion.
4. Maintain profes­sional integrity.

Legal Acts

1. Data Protection Act
2. Computer Misuse Act
3. Freedom of Inform­ation Act
4. Regu­lation of Invest­igatory Powers Act
5. Copy­right, Designs and Patents Act

Regulation of Invest­igatory Powers

This act is not specific to computing, though it does involve itself heavily in technology and the Internet.
This act gives law enforc­ement the right to intercept commun­ica­tion if they suspect criminal activity.
Also, they are given the right to decipher data by forcing the user to tell them how to decrypt it, i.e divulging a key.
 

Moral and Social Issues

Unau­tho­rised Access
Hackers may obtain access to a computer system for either ethical or unethical reasons.
Piracy
Some people believe that illegally downlo­ading software is permis­sible due to its price or the exploi­tative nature of software companies.
Cybe­rbu­lly­ing
The anonymous nature of the Internet may lead to people acting more malici­ously than they would offline.
Porn­ogr­aphy, Violence and Hatred
There is concern as to what impact these things may have on young people or society in general.
Freedom of Speech
This is the question as to whether people should be allowed to say whatever they want without fear of censor­ship.
Unem­plo­yment
Some people may be replaced by Internet or techno­logical altern­atives, such as online banking or automated cash registers.
Acess to the Internet
15% of the UK population do not have Internet access, which may put them at a great disadv­antage in the modern world.

Computer Misuse Act

This aims to prevent hacking and contains three offences:
1. Any unauth­orized access to computer systems
2. Unauth­orized access with further criminal intent
3. Unauth­orized modifi­cation of computer material

Cultural Issues

Exce­ssive Use of Data
We may be too dependent on data. Most decisions made by any organi­zation are based on data analysis.
Invasive Techno­log­ies
A lot of personal data is collected without our consent.
Over­-Re­liance on Comput­ers
If a computer system fails, conseq­uences can be dire. People may even die in some circum­sta­nces, i.e in hospitals.
Over­-Re­liance on Corpor­ati­ons
Giving monolithic entiti­es(­Google, Wikipedia) a lot of control over what we view on the Internet can be damaging.
Glob­ali­zat­ion
We may be more influenced by other parts of the world more than ever before.

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