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AP Bio - Metabolism Cheat Sheet by

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Metabolism

Sum of all chemical reactions ina living thing/­system

Laws of Thermo­dyn­amics

#1
You can convert energy from one form to another (Ex. Carboh­ydrate is converted into ATP)
#2
No transfer energy is a 10% efficient process (Ex. Converting carboh­ydrate to ATP is only 64% efficient)

Entrophy

Measur­ement of random­nes­s/d­isorder
Increase entrophy
Increase order = energy increases
Decrease entrophy
Increase disorder = energy decreases

Gibb's Free Energy (G)

- Gives the potential of a system or a rxt tp do useful work
- G = H - (TS)
- H= Enthalpy (total energy)
- T = Temper­ature (in kelvin)
- S = Entropy
- When kelvin is 0, atoms do not move
- What the equation tells you:
1) Sponta­neous system if G is negative, catabolic reaction (Ex. Cellular respir­ation)
2) Non-Sp­ont­aneous system if G is positive, anabolic reaction (Ex. Photos­ynt­hesis)

G

Negative G
Positive G
Decrease energy
Increase energy
Increase entropy
Decrease entropy
Decrease temper­ature
Increase temper­ature
Sponta­neous system
Non-Sp­ont­aneous System
Lose energy
Convert energy
Catabolic reaction (Cellular respir­ation)
Anabolic reaction (Photo­syn­thesis)

ATP

Energy is released in ATP when a phosphate is broken off

Metabolic Reactions

Catabolism
Exergonic reaction (energy is released or lost), breaks down organic compounds, example: glycolysis
Anabolism
Endergonic reaction (energy is added), organic compounds are synthe­sized, example: photos­ynt­hesis
Oxidation (Exerg­onic)
Molecule loses an electron, H is formed
Reduction (Ender­gonic)
Molecule gains an electron (H)
Coupled Reaction
An exergonic reaction provides the energy for an endergonic reaction
Electron Carriers
NAD+/NADH, FADH+/FADH
Chemio­smosis
Movement of ions across a semipe­rmeable membrane, examples: ETC
Phosph­ory­lation
Adding a phosphate molecule
Oxidative Phosph­ory­lation
Happens in the ETC, phosphate is added to ADP to form ATP
Photop­hos­pho­tyl­ation
Happens in photos­ynt­hesis, ATP is formed
Substrate Phosph­ory­lation
Adds a phosphate, can still make ATP, occurs in glycolysis & krebs cycle
 

Cellular Respir­ation

Aerobic Respir­ation
Needs oxygen, consists of: glycol­ysis, krebs cycle, and the electron transport chain
Anaerobic Respir­ation
Oxygen is toxic, consists of: glycol­ysis, fermen­tation (lactic acid + alcoholic)
Glycolysis
In cytosol, oldest process
Krebs Cycle
In matrix of mitoch­ondria
Electron Transport Chain
In cristae of mitoch­ondria

Glycolysis

Fermen­tation

Problems with Glycolysis

Pyruvate is Toxic
Solved with krebs cycle and/or fermen­tation
NAD+ is in Short Supply
Lack of NAD+ = process is not complete, solution is fermen­tation and/or the ETC

Cost Analysis of Glycolysis

Overall Gains
Net Gains
4 ATP
2 ATP
2 NADH
2 NADH (= 4 ATP)

Krebs Cycle

Purpose
Get rid of pyruvate from glycolysis
Rules
1) For every carbon to carbon bond that is broken, carbon dioxide is released and NADH is reduced
2) For any rearra­ngement of the carbon chain molecule, the substrate order is as follows: NADH -> ATP -> FADH -> NADH

Krebs Cycle

Net Gains

Glyc­oly­sis
Krebs Cycle
2 ATP
2 ATP
2 NADH
8 NADH
 
2 FADH

Electron Transport Chain

Gains from 1 Glucose

Proc­ess
Net Gains
Net Gains in ATP
Glycolysis
2 ATP
2 ATP
 
2 NADH
4 ATP
Krebs
2 ATP
2 ATP
 
8 NADH
24 ATP
 
2 FADH
4 ATP
Total
 
36 ATP
 

Photos­ynt­hesis

- In chloro­plast
- Anabolism (Small molecules become big), endergonic reaction (energy is added)
- Process of using light to split water, which provides ATP and NADH to fix carbon dioxide to 5 carbon RuBP to make 3 PGA (Phoso­gly­ceral Aldehyde)

Two Reactions

Light Rxt
Occurs in thylakoid (indiv­idual pancakes of the chloro­plast), needs water & sunlight, proces ATP and NADH
Dark Rxt/Calvin Cycle
In the stroma, needs ATP, NADH, and water, produces 3 PGA (Phoso­gly­ceral Aldehyde)

Reactions

Reac­tion
Reac­tants
Prod­ucts
Loca­tion
Light Reaction
Light, water, ADP, NADP+
Energy, oxygen, hydrogen, ATP, NADPH
Thylakoid
Dark Reaction, Calvin Cycle, C3
Carbon dioxide, ATP, NADPH
3 PGA, ADP, NADP+
Stroma

Light Reaction

Calvin Cycle

Photor­esp­iration

- Peroxi­somes & mitoch­ondria rearrange and split a two carbon compound from the chlorp­olast to release carbon dioxide
- Uses ATP

C4 Pathway

- In grassp­lants
- Occurs in mesophyll cells above the bundle sheath cells lining vascular tissues
- Photor­esp­ira­tion: Oxygen is added, causes carbon dioxide to be released to the bundle sheath, needs PEP (Phosp­hoe­nol­pyr­uvate Acid)

Vascular Tissue

C4 Pathway

Cost Analysis

C3
18 ATP, 12 NADH
C4
...a lot of ATP
CAM
6-8 more ATP

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