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Modern World History Ch 15- Years of Crisis Cheat Sheet by

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15.1 Postwar Uncert­ainty

Albert Einstein
Theory of Relati­vity 1905- space and time not constant
showed the world to be uncertain, unpred­ict­able, and relative
Sigmund Freud
father of modern psychology
believed human behavior is irrational (we are driven by our uncont­rol­lable uncons­cious mind)
weakened faith in reason
Literature in the 1920s
poets T.S. Eliot and William Butler Yeats wrote of darkness, loss of hope {{[nl}} Franz Kafka The Castle threat­ening situations not able to unders­tan­d/e­scape
James Joyce Ulysses stream of consci­ous­ness- like the human mind
Revolution in the Arts
expr­ess­ion­ism emotio­n/i­mag­ination in abstract color of Kandisky and Klee
surr­eal­ism dreamlike paintings of Salvador Dali
cubism broken geometric shapes formed by Pablo Picasso's paintings
compo­sers - nontra­dit­ional rhythms and sound (Strav­insky & Schoen­berg)
jazz loose beat, captured freedom
Society Challenges Convention
1920s more individual freedom
women wanted rights; gained suffrage in many countries; wore shorte­r/l­ooser clothes and short "­bob­bed­" hair
Many kept tradit­ional lifestyles but others sought new careers such as medicine and education
Margaret Sanger and Emma Goldman spoke out for birth control
Technology Improves LIfe
automobile was improved- sold tons after the war and changed lifestyles
airplanes become a new way to travel (for the wealthy)
Charles Lindbe­rgh 1927- succes­sfully flew 33 hours from NY to Paris
entert­ain­ment- radio and film
movies for art in Europe, entert­ainment in Hollywood- silent movies of Charlie Chaplin (first sound films came out in 1930s)
 

15.2 Worldwide Depression

Postwar Europe
WWI left Europe bankrupt
absolute rulers replaced with democracy
many political parties- make government ineffe­ctive
when no party has a majority Coal­ition Govern­ment (temporary alliance of parties)
weak leader­shi­p-p­roblem during crises
some preferred strength to democracy
The Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic German democracy establ­ished in 1919; weakness because Germany had no democratic experience and many political parties
printed money to pay for war- inflation; recovered 1923 Dawes Plan $200 million loan from USA to stabilize the economy
Peace Efforts: 1925- made peace with France, admitted into League of Nations; 1928- Kello­gg-­Briand Pact- world's countries promised to avoid war
Financial Collapse
USA- uneven distri­bution of wealth- couldn't afford goods, led to overpr­odu­ction; factories laid off workers; businesses and farms went into debt
stock prices kept rising, people took out loans to buy stocks; Black Tuesday October 1929- stock prices plummeted; investors sold stocks and couldn't pay off loans
The Great Depression
stock market crash led to unempl­oyment, price/wage cuts, decrease in factory production
collapse of American banks led to a global depres­sion; couldn't export goods to the U.S., Americans wouldn't invest in Europe; Europe's post war economy depended on American loans
The World Confronts the Crisis
many countries choose strong rulers over democracy
Britain and France kept democratic govern­ments and stabilized employ­ment; controlled taxes, currency, and trade
USA Franklin D. Roosev­elt uses his New Deal policy to make jobs and help businesses
 

15.3 Fascism Rises in Europe

Fascism
Fasc­ism nation­alist movement emphas­izing loyalty to the state over indivi­dua­lity; support from middle class, military, and indust­ria­lists
obedience to author­itarian leader; promised to guide nation to progress
like communism- one dictat­or/­pol­itical party
unlike communism- didn't want a classless society
Fascism in Italy
Italy bitter they didn't gain land after WWI
Benito Mussol­ini promised to revive economy and army- started Fascist Party; group was the Black Shirts, used fear to gain support; October 1922- marched on Rome and seized power in govern­ment, became Il Duce; abolished democracy and political parties; censored media, outlawed strikes, promoted industry
Hitler Rises to Power in Germany
Adolf Hitler­-Der Fuhrer, after serving in WWI, joined the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nazi)
nazi­sm, swastika was symbol, Brown shirts- army
1923- tried to seize power and was arrested- wrote Mein Kampf; German "­Ary­ans­" were master race; Jews, Slavs, Gypsies inferior; outraged at the Treaty of Versai­lles; wanted to take land/e­xpand Germany
Hitler becomes Chancellor
January 1933- Hitler named chance­llor; nazis won a majority in the parliament over communists
created a totali­tarian state; banned other political parties; terror with the SS (elite black shirt police­/mi­litary force) and Gest­apo (secret police); controlled economy for government benefit
used propaganda to control people; media, burned non-Nazi books; children joined The Hitler Youth (boys) and League of German Girls
anti-S­emitic (anti-­Jewish) agenda; blamed Germany's problems on Jews; passed laws taking away rights of Jews; November 9, 1938 Kris­tal­lna­cht­(­Night of Broken Glass)- mobs attacked Jewish homes/­bus­inesses
Other Countries Fall to Dictators
most of Eastern Europe had dictators in the years after WWI (Hungary, Poland, Yugosl­avia, Romania); seen as a way to bring stability
democracy survived in Britain, France, and Scanda­navia
tensions between democracy and dictators build
 

15.4 Aggressors Invade Nations

Japan Seeks an Empire
1920s- Japan became democratic and worked for peace; parliament had no control over military
Great Depression led to military leaders gaining support and power in 1929; milita­rists used Emperor Hirohito as center of power; wanted to conquer land in the Pacific for markets and growing population
Japanese Invasions
1931- Japan invaded and seized Manchuria- set up puppet govern­ment; built mines and factories and withdrew in 1933
1935- border dispute led to war with China- Japan captured capital Nanjing in 1937; Jiang Jieshi retreated, but Mao Zedong's guerrillas kept fighting
European Aggressors on the March
1935- Mussolini seized Ethiopia
Hitler defied the Treaty of Versai­lles; built up army and league didn't stop it; March 1936, invaded the Rhineland (neutral buffer between France and Germany) and streng­thened Hitler's influence, tipped balance of power
Britain and France had policy of appe­ase­ment (giving into an aggressor to keep the peace)
1936- Germany, Italy, and Japan became allies Axis Powers
Spanish Civil War
1931- Spain abolished monarchy to create a democracy
1936- Fran­cisco Franco led army leaders in a revolt in favor of Fascism, which led to a 3 year civil war
Hitler and Mussolini aided Franco
European democr­acies stayed neutral
1939- republic lost and Franco became dictator
Democratic Nations Try to Keep Peace
United States stays isolat­ionist - Congress passed 3 Neutrality Acts
Hitler wants to expand the Third Reich (German empire) - March 1938 Germany went against the Treaty of Versailles to annex Austria
Britain and France keep appeasing -Munich Conference in September 1938 gave Hitler Sudete­nland in Czecho­slo­vakia
Nazis and Soviets sign non-ag­gre­ssion pact August 1939

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