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Chem 111 Cheat Sheet by

Miscel­laneous Formulas

Area of a Circle
3.14r2
Volume
area x height
Density
mass/v­olume
% Compos­ition of Element
[(#of atoms of elemen­t)x­(atomic weight of elemen­t)]­/fo­rmula weight of substance x 100
% Yield
[(actual yield)­/(t­heo­retical yield)] x 100
Molarity
(moles of solute­)/(­volume of solution in Liters)
Effective Nuclear Charge
(atomic number) - (screening constant)
Dipole Moment
Qr
Bond Order
(# shared electrons) - (# nonbonding electr­ons))
Pressure
(force) / (area)
Pressure x Volume
nRT
Density of Gas
mass / volume
Density of Gas
(pressure x Molarity) / (R x temp.)
Molarity of Gas
(density x R x Temper­ature) / pressure
Vapor Pressure
-(change in Hvap) / RT + C1

Activity Series

Lithium
Potassium
Barium
Calcium
Sodium
Magnesium
Aluminium
Manganese
Zinc
Chromium
Iron
Cobalt
Nickel
Tin
Lead
Hydrogen
Copper
Silver
Mercury
Platinum
Gold
The higher up, the greater the ease of oxidation

Light Formulas

The speed of light (c)
3.00 x 108 ms
c =
(wavel­enght) x (velocity)
Planck's Constant (h)
6.626 x 10-34 J-s
E =
hv
Rydberg Constant (Rh)
1.097 x 107 m-1
wavelength =
h / (mv)

Calories in Food

Fat
8.8
Protein
4.1
Carbs
4.1

Interm­ole­cular Forces

Bond
Subs­tance
Melting Point (K)
Boiling Point (K)
Covalent
Diamond
3800
4300
Metallic
Beryllium
1560
2742
Ionic
Lithium Fluoride
1118
1949
Dispersion Force
Nitrogen
63
77
Dipole­-Dipole Force
HCl
158
188
Hydrogen
HF
190
293
 

Metric System

Prefix
Abbr­evi­ation
Mean­ing
Peta
P
1015
Tera
T
1012
Giga
G
109
Mega
M
106
Kilo
k
103
Deci
d
10-1
Centi
c
10-2
Milli
m
10-3
Micro
u
10-6
Nano
n
10-9

Temper­ature Conver­sions

Celsius to Kelvin
K = C + 273.15
Kelvin to Celsius
C = K - 273.15
Celsius to Fahrenheit
F = 9/5(C) + 32
Fahrenheit to Celsius
C = 5/9 (F) - 32

Laws

Law of Constant Compet­ition
-French Chemist, Joseph Louis Proust (1800):the elemental compos­ition of a compound is almost always the same
Law of Conser­vation of Mass
The total mass of substances present at the end of a chemical process is the same as the mass of substances present before the process took place

Energy Formulas

Kinetic Energy (Ek)
1/2mv2
Potential Energy (Eel)
(kQ1Q2)/d
Work
force x distance
Work
-Pressure x (change in Volume)
Internal Energy
E(final) - E(initial)
Enthalpy (H)
(internal energy) + (pressure x volume)
Enthalpy of Reaction
H (products) - H (react­ants)
Specific Heat
(heat transf­erred) / (mass x change in temp.)
Change in Enthalpy
m x s x (change in T)
Lattice Energy
K [(Q1Q2) / d]

Exceptions to the Octet Rule

- ions or molecules have an odd number of electrons
- ions or molecules with less than an octet
-ions or molecules with more than 8 valence electrons

Conver­sions

1 amu
1.66054 x 10-24g
Grams to Moles
divide by formula weight
Moles to Grams
multiply by formula weight
Moles to Molecules
multiply by 6.022 x 1023
Molecules to Moles
divide by 6.022 x 1023

Magnetic Quantum Number

n
l
m1
1
0
0
2
0
0
-
1
1, 0, -1
3
0
0
-
1
1, 0, -1
-
2
2, 1, 0, -1, -2
4
0
0
-
1
1, 0, -1
-
2
2, 1, 0, -1, -2
-
3
3, 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3

The Scientific Method

-hypot­hesis: tentative explan­ation
-theory: an explan­ation of the general causes of phenomena
-scien­tific law: a concise law that summarizes something
-mass: a measur­ement of the amount of material in an agent
 

SI Units

Physical Quantity
Name of Unit
Abbr­evi­ation
Mass
Kilogram
kg
Length
Meter
m
Time
Second
s or sec
Temper­tature
Kelvin
K
Amount of Substance
Mole
mol
Electric Current
Ampere
amp or A
Luminous Intensity
Candela
cd

States of Matter

Liquid
Gas
Solid
assumes shape of the portion of container it occupies
assumes volume and shape of container
retains own shape and volume
does not expand to fill container
expands to fill container
does not expand to fill container
is virtually incomp­res­sible
is compre­ssible
is virtually incomp­res­sible
flows readily
flows readily
does not flow
diffusion occurs slowly
diffusion occurs rapidly
diffusion occurs extremely slowly

Molecular Shapes

Steric #
Electron -Domain
Bonding / Nonbon­ding
Mole­cular Geometry
2
Linear
2 / 0
Linear
3
Trigonal Planar
3 / 0
Trigonal Planar
  
2 / 1
Bent
4
Tetrah­edral
4 / 0
Tetrah­edral
  
3 / 1
Trigonal Pyramid
  
2 / 2
Bent
5
Trigonal Bipyra­midal
5 / 0
Trigonal Bipyra­midal
  
4 / 1
Seesaw
  
3 / 2
T-shaped
  
2 / 3
Linear
6
Octahedral
6 / 0
Octahedral
  
5 / 1
Square Pyramidal
  
4 / 2
Square Planar
Steric # = (# of bonds) - (nonbo­nding electron pairs)

Metals vs. Nonmetals

Metals
Nonm­etals
shiny luster, various colors, more silvery
no luster, various colors
solids are malleable, ductile
solids are brittle, some hard, some soft
good conductors of heat and electr­icity
poor conductors of heat and electr­icity
most oxides are ionic, most solids are basic
most oxides for acidic solutions
tend to form cations in aqueous solutions
tend to form anions or oxyanions in aqeuous solutions

Strong Bases and Acids

Strong Acids
Strong Bases
HCl
LiOH
HBr
NaOH
HI
KOH
HClO3
RbOH
HClO4
CsOH
HNO3
Sr(OH)
H2SO4
Ba(OH2)

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