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Botany 223 Cheat Sheet by

Ch.2 - Primary Molecules

Carb­ohy­dra­tes - mono = glucose, ribose, fructose, di = sucrose, poly = starch, cellulose, for energy and structure
(carbs­-poly) amylose = linear, tight helicles, harder to break down, amylo­pectin = branched, easier to mobilize
cell­ulose - most abundant, fibers cross link like ribbons via H-bond, herbivores cant break down
Lipids - energy storage (fats/­oils), membrane structure (phosp­hol­ipids, sterols), protection from UV and desicc­ation (waxes)
sat fat - no dd unsat fat - dd
oils are stored in cyto­plasm and chloro­plasts
plants make dedicated storage proteins
long term sorage of nitrogen in protein body, vacuole and chloro­pla­sts

Ch.4 - Tissues

each organ is made of three tissues - dermal, vascular, ground
simple - one type of cell comp­lex - more than one type of cell
herba­ceous plants grow via apical meristem
woody plants grow using apical and lateral mersitems
3 kinds of tissues - parenc­hyma, collen­chyma and sclere­nchyma
pare­nchyma tissue - think 1º, no 2º, alive, storage
coll­enchyma tissue - group in strands and help support young parts of the plant shoot, unevenly thick primary wall, no 2º, alive, support
scle­ren­chyma tissue - extremely thick 2º wall, heavily lignified 1º, dead, support, 2 shapes sclerids star/round or long thin w/tappered ends
parenchyma = food we eat
protoderm = dermal, ground meristem = ground, procambium = vascular
xylem - water conduc­ting, tracheids and vessel­s(a­ngi­osperm only), water flows through conducting cells via pits in cell wall
phloem -sugar conduc­ting, sieve tube, companion cells
epid­ermis - single layer on surface of all organelle, cuticle (waxy), cell types: pavement, guard, trichomes
peri­derm - lateral cork cambium, cork cells (box cells), infused with tannins, suberin and ligning
lenticels are a group of parenchyma cells in periderm, pourous opening in the cork layer

Ch.6 - Stems

young parts of stem *proca­mbium, 1º vascular cambium tissue system, 1º xylem and phloem
old parts of stem *vascular cambium, 2º vascular tissue system, periderm
mono­cots - scattered vasucluar bundles , one cotyledon
dicot - vascular bundles in ring, two cotyledon
vascular ray cells run radially through xylem and phloem to connect
metabolic function is to convert xylem ray cells to heartw­ood
hear­twood = structural
sapw­ood = structural and conduction
how we we know a stem (rhizomes) isnt a root... vascular bundle arrang­ement
bulb shorterned stem with modified leaves
corms are compact underg­round stems, nutrient storage organs
stol­ons runners are above ground stem to reprod­uction
tubers nutrient storage, high in starch
some tendrils are modified stems
phyl­lodes are flat stems used for photos­ynt­hesis on a cacti
many ferns have undergound rhiz­omes

Ch.9 - Water in Plants

water potent­ial is determined by presence of solutes, pressure, and gravity
if water potential is lower inside the cell than outside then its turgid
if water potential is higher inside the cell than outside its flaccid
Turgid - water moves into cell, Ys is large and negative,
water enters root cells via osmo­sis
symp­ort­ers transport two compounds together eg) H+ over PM with ions
symp­las­tic - cross PM at root hairs, apop­las­tic - cross PM at endode­rmis, due to casparian strip and ensodermis must cross a PM
atmosphere is always dryer than cell surface so it keeps taking water from cell which is replaced by neighbour until it is replaced by xylem, = negative pressure
phot­osy­nth­esi­s-t­ran­spi­ration connun­drum 0 cell surface must be wet to allow CO2 to dissolve and be used in photos­ynt­hesis this leads to H2O loss, stomata must be open to allow CO2 in, water is lost!
gutt­ation negative pressure in xylem, transp­iration is very low and soil moisture is very high, water is pushed from soil to leaf surface (out of vein tip and hydath­odes)
most stomata are open duiring the day and closed at night
night - flaccid, solution concen­tration is the same in guard cells and apoplast
day being K+ pump into guard cell
enviro­nem­ental factors can over ride this - water stress - high T (lots of CO2)
Phloem - source - mature leaves to sinks - young leafs
how does phloem move? from source (sucrose is accumu­lated into sieve tube by ATP) to sink (uptake of water into phloem) , positive pressure moves water and sucrose by bulk flow
short distance = diffusion, active transp­ort­/pu­mpting long distan­ces = bulk flow

Ch. 10 - Metabolism (Photo­syn­the­sis2)

Ch.11 - Growth and Develo­pment

Rhytisma Puncta­tum - tarspot fungus that causes green spots on bigleaf maple
3 phases of physio­logical respon­ses - 1.perc­eption (signal) 2. transd­uction (receptor and messenger molecules)
Auxin - promotes organ formation at SAM, encourages fruit growth, control branching, apical dominance and advant­ageous roots, promotes cell and organ growth by cell loosening which leads to cell expansion
leaf miners use bact­erial endosy­mbi­osis to make enough cytokinins to keep plant alive
green revolu­tion crops are shorter so they will yield more this is done by Rht genes
removal of auxillary bud branching issues and auxillary bug flush add auxin auxilary bug stay dormant and branching is suppressed
Gibb­ere­llins - promotes juvenile to adult, cell expansion, seed germin­ation, breaking seed dormancy and mobilize stored nutrients
Cyto­kin­ins - promotes cell division and shoot formation, making them live longer (made in root tips and transp­orted up through plant )
Absisic Acid - (toler­ance) inhibi­tory, seed dormancy and resistance to cold/d­rought, control closing of stomata (in response to water stress)
Ethy­lene - leaf abcission, senesc­ence, ripening, allows seedling to break through soil
tropic = direct­ional nastic = nondir­ect­ional
phot­otr­opism - growing towards light, detected by blue light receptors where they touch PM auxin accumu­lates
heli­otr­opism - solar tracking
grav­itr­opism - gravity, resting position of statoliths where they touch PM auxin accumu­lates
thig­hmo­tro­pism - response to touch by curling of tendrils to get support (nutation)
2 types of photor­eceptor - phyt­och­romes - red light, seed germin­ation and shade avoidance cryp­toc­hro­mes - blue light, germin­ation, elonga­tion, photop­eri­odism
PFr - seed germin­ation and flowering
Pr - stem elongation

Ch. 17 - Cyanob­acteria

photos­ynt­hesis began by cyanob­acteria being absorbed through endo­sym­bio­sis into a eukaryotic cell
cyanob­acteria live in moist locations as well as symbionts
biol­ogical soil - sediments that root down soil and protects tilting from dust
nitrogen fixing cyanob­acteria are an attractice symbiotic partner
what inhibits nitrogen fixing and how does the plant get around it - oxygen and by making lots of ATP this takes place in specia­lized cells called heteocysts
N2 fixing prokar­yotes stored in root nodules (protect from oxygen)
hete­roc­ysts - large thick walled cell in the filament of certain cyanob­acteria that perform nitrogen fixation
cyanob­acteria have high concen­tra­tions of care­tenoid pigments
cyan­oba­cterial bloom - toxic, smothe­rin­g,when its decomp­osing it causes an oxygen deficiency in water
overuse of fertil­izer - phosphorus is limiting - leaks into water it can create algae or cyanob­act­erial bloom, creates dead zones in water
cyanob­acteria can move via surface waves or slime expuls­ion

Ch. 19 Fungi

defining charac­ter­ist­ics - eukary­otic, hetero­tro­phic, cell walls made of chitin, glycogen storage, haplontic
unic­ell­ular = yeasts, mult­ice­llu­lar = hyphae make up
septate hypae = crosswalls coen­ocytic hyphae = no crosswalls
fungi eat dead and moist plants and animal material, biotro­phs­/pa­rasites
mutu­alistic fungi - mycorr­hiza(N2 fixing), endoph­ytes(in plants between cells), lichen­s(m­utu­alistic relati­onship with fungi and algae/­cya­nob­act­eria)
sept­ate make asexual spores into a conidium (beads sausage links)
coen­ocy­tic make asexual spores in bound sporangium (ballon of spores)
Chyt­rid­iom­yce­tes - aquatic, decomp­osers, parasites, mutual­ists, coenoc­ytics, flagel­lated spores and gams eat algae
Zygo­myc­etes - pin/sugar molds, eat fluff mycelium, coenocytic hyphae, asexual spores in sporan­gium, thick walled resistant zygospores
soy needs ot be treated before we eat it because it has defence mechanisms that protect seeds
Asco­myc­ota - largest group, unicel­lular = yeast, multic­ellular = morel,­fungi, asex spore = conidia sex spore = asek
Basi­dio­myc­etes - cub fungi, spores on basidium, septate hyphae, sexual only, big diversity, spores exposed to outside, gills, teeth, inside open pores on convoluted outside of the mushroom
Lich­ens - symbio­tically associated to green alga, ascomycete or basidi­omy­cetes

Ch.23 - Seed Plants and Angios­perms

angios­perms make flowers and the fruit around their flowers
eudi­cots have a fixed number of organs
basal angios­perms have a variable number of organs
flowers are aneffi­cient way to commun­icate to pollin­ators and disperse seeds/­com­mun­icate with seed dispersers
what is a flower? - shoot apical meristem that transi­tions to a terminal flower meristem, needs all four organs
1. sepals 2. petals 3. stamen 4. carpel
after polination and initiation of seed develo­pment the petal and stamen tend to dry up and fall off
4 types of modified leaves
1 flower at the end of a stalk(aka penduncle) (or inflor­ens­cent)
perfect vs. imperf­ect - perfect is f/m imperfect is f or m
impe­rfect can be monoceious - f/m on same plant or dioecious - f/m on different plants
angi­osperm life cycle - mitiotic divisions make 3 nuclei (1 tube nucleus, 2 sperm nucleus - 1 to egg(zy­gote2n) 1 to polar nuclei­(en­dos­per­m3n))
main diff. betwen gymno/­angio - ovule placement gym = surface of sporo, ang = in sporo seed nutritive tissue - gym = fem gam, ang = endosperm
mature ovary pepicarp has 3 layer ( enocarp, mesocarp, exocarp )
dry - indehi­scent and dehiscent corn and acorn
fleshy - berries, drupes and pommes apples and pears each fruitlet of a berry is a drupe
 

Ch.3 - Cells

cell­ulose - linear b glucose polymer, extend cell wall space through the plasma membrane made via cellulose synthase, control layout of micro tubule tracks to control the shape
hemi­cel­lul­ose and pectin are made via golgi apparatus and excytosed to cell wall
hemi­cel­lul­ose keeps fibrils in place hetero polysa­cch­aride: glucose, xylose, arabin
pectin plays big role in middle lamella hetero polysa­cch­aride: galact­uronic acid, gel forming making cell walls pliable
GMO dont want food to degrade (reduce levels of polyga­lac­tur­onase)
cell wall and cell division - cytoki­nisis
Primary Cell Wall - thin, growing and dividing, pliable and eleastic, cellulose, hemice­llulose and pectin
Seco­ndary Cell Wall - thick, inside primary, hard and rigid(­cel­lulose, hemice­llulose and pectin), dead, often lignified
plas­mod­esm­ata - cytopl­asmic connec­tions between plants , a tube of plasma membrane that has ER running through it, made during mytotic division
apoplast - cell wall space of connected cells symplast = cytoplasm of connected cells
Golgi Appara­tus - where glycop­roteins and complex polysa­cch­airdes are made important for diving or secretory cells
Plas­tids - chloro­(co­ntain carete­noids, and chloro­phyll), amylo(in starch storage organs), proplast, own genome, self replic­ating, endosy­mbiotic origin,
chro­mop­lasts are yellow, red or orange*
Vacu­ole - peanut in an M&M, storage, anthoc­yanin pigments, Cheap growth
sometimes plant over accumulate CA2+ and it gets put in the vacuole then precip­itated out as crystals defen­sive!
tann­ins denature and precip­itate proteins

Ch.5 - Roots

cortex (ground tissue) stores starch
dicots root's vascular cylinder froms a solid central core, in monocots its a parenchyma central pth
xylem in center­/phloem towards outside, endodermis and oericycle surround x/p
top and bottom and side walls of roots are impreg­nanted with endodermal cell and are lignified and suberi­nized = apoplastic barrier
sign­ifi­cance of endode­rmis only minerals that have corres­ponding plasma membrane transport proetins are allowed into vascular systems
peri­cycle - merist­ematic acticity,, in plant with secondary growth, vascular cork cambium originates here
young root = PAM old root = SAM or LAM, VC or CC
in roots that undergo secondary growth... cortex and endodermis are destroyed as roots expand in girth from activity of vascular cambium, in old thick roots periderm (made from cork cambium) functi­onally repalces the endodermis
drop roots = air
propag­ative roots = cloans
aerial roots = prop roots
butt­ress = archit­ectural support, compost bins
pneu­top­hore = underwater airflow
cont­rac­tile
myco­rrh­izae symbiotic mutual­istic relati­onship between vascular plant and fungus
fungal hyphae is better than root hairs, (finer and reach furthur)
root nodules - symbiotic (mutua­listic) associ­ation between roots and nitrogen fixing bacteria

Ch. 7 - Leaves

where do leaves come from - leaf auxillary bud primordia produced on flanks of SAM
phyl­lot­axy - leaf arrang­ement on stem, altern­ate­/sp­iral, opposite, whorled
spiral phyllotaxy follows fibo­nacci sequen­ces
leaves have different shapes based on age stage
colourful modified leaves are called bracts and are used to bring attention to incons­picuous flowers
parts of the leaf - petiole, blade, sheath
shapes - simple, compound
vein pattern - parall­ell­(mono) or netted(di)
simple leaves - smooth, toothed, lobed
compound leaves - pinnately, palmately
tissues are the same as the rest of the body dermal = epidermis, ground = mesophyll, vascular = x/p
epid­ermal - gives strength to leaf, transp­arent, cuticle, sotmata, specia­lized cells = trichomes, bulliform
guard cells define site of stomata, random in dicots, lines in monocot
leaf modifi­cat­ions - tendrils, insect traps, bromends
why do leafs fall in the winter? degr­edation fo pectin in middle lamella causes cells to separate from each other, leaf falls off

Ch. 10 - Metabolism (Cellular Respir­ation)

Ch. 10 - Metabolism (Photo­syn­the­sis1)

Ch. 12 - Altern­ation of Genera­tions

mito­sis - asexual reprod­uction one cell = two cells, (G2, prophase, promet­aphase, metaphase, anaphase, teloph­ase­/cy­tok­inesis)
meio­sis - same process steps but they do it twice, sexual (crossing over, segreg­ation of alles), 1 cell = 4 cells
how to determine the life cycle? phase of meiosis, product of spores
dipl­ontic life cycle - mitosis = diploid, meiosis = gamete
hapl­odi­plo­nti­c/a­lte­rnation of genera­tion - mitosis in haploi­d/d­iploid phase, diploid = sporop­hyte, haploid = gameto­phyte, haploid spores divide via mitosis to make gametes
alte­rnation of genera­tion - meiosis in ovule makes haploid megaspore -> mitosis = female gam, meiosis in anther makes haploid microspore -> mitosis = male gam,
simi­lar­ities between cycles - haploi­d/d­iploid phases, differ­ences between cycles, mitotic divisions (where), what types of cell mitosis makes

Ch. 18 - Protists

habi­tat - mostly aquatic, and some terres­trial
nutr­ition - auto, mix, hetero
Chlo­rop­hyta - green algae, such diversity, land pants and green algae (chlor­ophyll b, starch is energy storage, similar type of cell wall)
paralytics shellfish poisoning = saxitoxins
Chlo­rella - unicel­lular green algae, CBC, superfood
Chro­mop­hyta - brown algae and diatoms, diatoms are important primary producers, rich in lipids and carbs, silica glass cell thickner - alginate
Diat­oms - big part of sedime­nts­(dy­nam­ite), reproduce until they are too small
amnestic shellfish poison­ing - domoic acid bio accumu­lates
Char­oph­yta - close relative of land plants
snow algae - green microa­lgae, chlamy­dom­oans, chloro­moans, astaxa­nthins = red colour
Rhyd­oph­yta - red algae, red due to physco­bilins, grows deepest, largest, most common, nori
Dino­fla­gel­lates - complez chloro, hetero and auto,
add iron dust to ocean to improve algal growth

Ch. 22 - Angios­perms

where did seeds come from? retention of female gameto­phytes on sporophyte
limited resources when female gameto­phyte is out on its own
what if we kept the megaspore snide the megasp­ora­ngium inte­gument invent­ion!
how will the sperm get in now? via pollen
vascular seedless - sporophyte dominant hetero and homogenous free living gameto­phyte nourishes young sporophyte spore in dispersal phase
seed plants - sporophyte dominant hetero­sporous integument microg­ame­tphyte is released new sporophyte is in a seed seed in disperal phase
Cycads look like palm trees cycads male cone sporop­hylls in cone carry micros­por­angia full cycad female cone envision ovules on surface of sporop­hylls
Ginko no fruit nuts are smelly, and can cause skin irrita­tion, but are delicacy in some places
Gnet­oph­yte CAM vessels in xylem half ephedra - joint stems and leaves half gnetum - broad leafs and occur in the tropics primarily as vines welwit­schia is confined to southwest african deserts, its stem is in the form of a shallow cup with strap like leaves that extend from the rim; basal meristem on leaves contin­ually add to the length
Coni­fers old and tall extra tough seeds needles for leaves male cones hold micros­por­angium female­/ov­ulate hold megaso­pra­ngium some cones shatter instead of falling apart many cupres­saceace make globose cones juniper berries are globose cones that have scales that have fused together conifers make lots of resin - absorbed via resin ducts or canals resin has lots of uses amber is fossilized resin

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