Show Menu

Genetic Information Cheat Sheet by

dna     apbio     quickreview     notindepth     pleasestudymorethanthis     apreview

Genetic Inform­ation Must-Knows

All living organisms on Earth's genetic inform­ation is either in the form of DNA or RNA.
Genetic inform­ation is passed on from one generation to the next.
With rare except­ions, prokar­yotes have circular genetic inform­ation and eukaryotes have linear genetic inform­ation.

What makes up Genetic Inform­ation?

Both DNA and RNA have sugar-­pho­sphate backbones that make up the "­str­and­s" shape. In DNA, the bases that pair with one another make the ladder shape in the middle.
 

History of Our Knowledge of Genetics

Avery, Macleod, and McCarty
They performed experi­ments and found that DNase (deoxy­rib­onu­cle­ase) prevented a change in a strain of bacteria. Therefore, DNA is the transf­orming principle aka genetic material.
Hershey and Chase
Viruses made of DNA and marked protein coats were introduced to bacteria. The bacteria was infected by the virus; however, the protein stayed on the surface of the bacteria while the DNA was injected and all new viruses on the inside of the bacteria were not marked.
Watson and Crick
Watson and Crick used inform­ation from Franklin and Wilkins's research and figured out that DNA has a doub­le-­helix structure.

The Different Bases

Purines
Guanine and Adenine have double ring struct­ures.
Pyrimi­dines
Cytosine, Thymine, and Uracil have single string struct­ures.
Opposites attract! G pairs with C and A pairs with T. (In RNA, A pairs with U.)
 

DNA and RNA Differ­ences

 
DNA
RNA
Sugar
Deoxyr­ibose
Ribose
Bases
Adenine
Adenine
 
Guanine
Guanine
 
Cytosine
Cytosine
 
Thymine
Uracil
Strands
Double­-St­randed
Single Stranded

Types of RNA and Their Functions

mRNA
tRNA
rRNA
messenger
transfer
ribosomal
genetic info from nucleus to ribosome
transfers amino acid to a protein
makes up most of ribosome
3 bases makes a codon that codes for an amino acid
3 bases compli­mentary to an mRNA make up an anticodon that binds to the codon
functional building block of ribosome

How does DNA tell my cells what to do?

Tran­scr­ipt­ion- RNA is made from the DNA and is made from compli­mentary bases. (EX: GCAATT on the DNA strand will create CGUUAA on the RNA made from it.)
Tran­sla­tion- RNA is used to create proteins in the ribosome. Each 3 pairs of RNA creates a codon which creates an amino acid. (EX: CGU makes Arginine and UAA stops the coding.)
The amino acids make up proteins which create our physical features. The stop codon stops the coding and breaks off the chain of amino acids from the ribosome. That chain is now a (hopef­ully) functional protein.

Download the Genetic Information Cheat Sheet

1 Page
//media.cheatography.com/storage/thumb/kannikaoliver_genetic-information.750.jpg

PDF (recommended)

Alternative Downloads

Share This Cheat Sheet!

 

Comments

No comments yet. Add yours below!

Add a Comment

Your Comment

Please enter your name.

    Please enter your email address

      Please enter your Comment.

          Related Cheat Sheets

          More Cheat Sheets by kannikaoliver