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Biology Chapter 1-5 midterm test Cheat Sheet by

biology     chapter     1-5

Properties of Life

Having biological molecules that contain instru­ctions for building other molecules
Gather energy and material from surrou­ndings to build new biological molecules, grow in size, maintain and repair their parts, and produce offspring
respond to enviro­nmental changes by altering their chemistry and activity in ways that allow them to survive
Structure and functions of living organisms often change over genera­tions: evolution

Defini­tions chapter 2

Anything that occupies space and has a mass composed of elements and combin­ations of elements
Elements are composed of atoms- the smaller units that retain the chemical and physical properties of an element
are atoms combine chemically in fixed numbers and ratios of living and nonliving matter
are molecules whose component atoms are different (carbon dioxide)
an atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons
is a positively charged ion Na+
is a negatively charged ion Cl-
Electr­one­gative or Positive Isotopes
are distinct forms of atoms of an element with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

Ch.3 Major biological polymers and monomers

may be linear, unbranched molecules, or may contain one or more branches with side chains of sugar units attached to a main chain. Carboh­ydrate polymers with more than 10 linked monosa­cch­aride monomers are polysa­cch­arides.
are polymers of amino acid monomers, which contain both an amino and a carboxyl group. All organisms use 20 different amino acids to build proteins
Nucleic acids
are macrom­ole­cules assembled from repeating monomers called nucleo­tides
is a chemical reaction between two compounds where one of the products is water
Hydrolysis reaction
where water combines with hydroxyl. Breakdown of polymers into monomers.

Specia­lized structures of plant cells

How are plant cells different from animal cells?
These following structures are in plant cells: chloro­plasts, a large vacuole, plant cell walls
How do we think mitoch­ondria and chloro­plasts evolved?
from aerobic, oxygen­-co­nsu­ming, prokar­yotes
What are the major components and functions of the cytosk­eleton?
its an interc­onn­ected system of protein fibers and tubes that extends throughout the cytoplasm. Maintains a cells charac­ter­istic shape and internal organi­zation function in movements

Emergent Properties

What is emergent proper­ties?
Charac­ter­istics that depend on the level of organi­zation, but do not exists at lower levels.
What are emergent properties of cells?
Prokar­yotes, and most protists and fungi have only a single cell.. Smallest unit with the capacity to live and reproduce, indepe­ndently or as part of a multic­ellular organism.
What are emergent properties of organisms?
multic­ellular organisms create tissues, or group of cells to work together or perform a particular function. Individual consisting of interd­epe­ndent cells
What are emergent properties of popula­tions?
Many indivi­duals create new properties such as: size, density, dispersion structure, age, sexual distri­bution and genetic variat­ions. Group of indivi­duals of the same species living in the same area.
What are emergent properties of commun­ities?
Members of community can be part of a food chain. Population of all species that occupy the same area
What are emergent properties of ecosys­tems?
ecosystems cycle energy and matter. They are commun­ities intera­cting with their shared physical enviro­nment

Questions Chapter 2

How is C14 different from C13 or C^12? Can they be part of biological reactions?
Its a radioi­sotope. All have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
What makes the water molecule polar?
An uneven distri­bution of electron density and its shape makes it polar.
What emergent properties important to life does hydrogen bonding among water molecules cause?
Cohesive and Adhesive, Water maintains a relatively constant temper­ature, a good solvent, water expands when it freezes so floats, water has a neutral pH
How does the pH scale measure dissoc­iation of water?
The measure of concen­tration of protons (H) in water, or essent­ially the strength of the proton donation reaction.
What is neutral pH?
7 is neutral which is pure water
What is acidic pH?
1-7 on the pH scale
What is basic pH?
7-14 on the pH scale
How does pH affect life?
Measurment to deterinthe acidity and alkalinity of the body.

Prokar­yotic & Eukaryotic

Prokar­yotic cells
Nucleoid region has no boundary membrane. Many species of bacteria have few internal membranes
Eukaryotic cells
The true nucleus is separated from the surrou­nding cytoplasm by membranes. Cytoplasm typically contains extensive membrane systems that form organelles
Unique to eukaryotic cells
A membrane- Bound nucleus. It contains one or more nuclei formed around the genes coding for rRNA molecules of ribosomes
Why is the surface area to volume ratio of cells important?
Its important that the surface area to the volume ratio gets smaller as the cell gets larger.

chapter 4. Defini­tions organelles

membrane bound organelles where cellular respir­ation occurs
are yellow­-green plastids. The site of photos­ynt­hesis in plant cells
micro bodies that produce hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) as a by product

Cellular Membranes

What are cell membranes primarily composed of, and how are these arranged to create a barrier?
Composed of phosph­olipids and proteins and are typically described as phosph­olipid bi-layer.
What does the mosaic part of the fluid mosaic model refer to?
the cell membrane is composed of mostly lipids but also other types of molecules
What does the fluid part of the model say about cell membrane organi­zation?
The ability of phosph­olipids to remain as a bilayer, but also spin, drift, and wiggle
What keeps cell membranes fluid at low temper­atures in plants and in animals?
What is the role of choles­terol in stabil­izing membranes in animals?
Choles­terol functions as a buffer, preventing lower temp. from inhibiting fluidity and preventing higher temps.
what principles govern diffusion and osmosis?
what type of molecules are cell membranes most permeable to?
what cannot pass?
Why are transport proteins necessary?
How does the cell membrane partic­ipate in exocytosis and endocy­tosis?

Hierar­chies of Life

Multic­elluar organism

Type of bonds

results from electrical attrac­tions between atoms that gain or lose valence electrons completely (ions)
form when atoms share a pair of valence electrons rather than gaining or losing. H2=H:H
electrons are shared unequally between two atoms
two atoms share a pair of electrons with each other
Van der Waals
are weak forces that develop over short distances between non polar molecules as moving electrons accumulate by chance in one part of a molecule or another
Hydrogen bonding
are attrac­tions between partially positive hydrogen atoms and partially negative atoms sharing in a different covalent bond


The difference between saturated and unsatu­rated fatty acids
Saturated fats are solid at room temper­ature while unsatu­rated fats are liquid at room temper­ature. Saturated fats have no double bond between molecules, unsatu­rated fats have double bonds, which reads up the chain of hydrogen molecules and creates gaps.
What are phosph­oli­pids?
Are from cell membranes
What are steroids?
Serve as hormones that regulate cellular activites

Endome­mbrane system

Rough ER
has many ribosomes on its outer surface. Proteins made on these ribosomes enter the ER lumen, where they fold and receive chemical modifi­cat­ions, such as addition of carboh­ydrate groups to produce glycop­roteins
Smooth ER
membranes have no ribosomes attached to their surfaces. Membrane lipids are synthe­sized in their compar­tments. Live smooth ER detoxifies drugs, poisons, and by-pro­ducts
Golgi Apparatus
the golgi complex "­tag­s" proteins for sorting to their final destin­ations
are small membra­ne-­bound vesicles containing hydrolytic enzymes that digest complex molecu­les­-cells recycle the subunits of these molecules lysosomes are found in animals, but not plants.

Scientific Method

What does the scientist want to learn more about?
Gathering inform­aation
An "­edu­cat­ed" guess of an answer to the question
Written and carefully followed step-b­ys-step experiment designed to test the hypothesis
Inform­ation collected during the experiment
Written descri­ption of what was noticed during the experiment
Was the hypothesis correct or incorrect?


Structure of amino acids
Properties of the different amino acids groups create four levels of protein structure
Forces that hold the structure together
what happens when a protein is denatured?
Unfolding a protein from its active confor­mation so that it loses its structure and function (caused by chemicals, changes in pH, high temp)

Light microscope & electron microscope

Light microscope
Defini­tion: use electrons to illuminate the specimen
Electron Microscope
Defini­tion: use light to illuminate the specimen Magnif­ica­tio­n&­Res­olu­tion: have much higher magnif­ication and resolu­tio­nthan Light micros­copes.

Function and Major features ch. 4

Stores the cell hereditary material, coordi­nates the cells activites. only eukaryotes have a nucleus.
Plasma membrane
A bilayer made of phosph­olipids with embedded protein molecules
are a cell structure that makes protein. Protein is needed for many cell functions such as repairing damage or directing chemical processes.

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