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Biology Test (2017) Cheat Sheet by

science     biology

Terms

zygote
cell that develops into offspring
embryo
unprot­ected or unhatched off spring
genetic diversity
inherited genetic differ­ences in a species
sustai­nab­ility
ability of enviro­nment to keep supporting its organisms into future
reprod­uction
ensures life exists beyond its present gen. and species exist in future

DNA

Chromatin
Condensed form of DNA
Nitrogen bases
"­steps of DNA"; a with t, c with g
Chromo­somes
condensed chromatin for reprod­uction
Homolog pairs
chromes that are the same shape, size, have same genetic info in same spot; one from ea. parent

DNA replic­ation

During late interp­hase, Dna unwinds with enzyme and bases are paired with new bases.

Asexual Reprod­uction

binary fission
mitosis in prokar­yotes
budding
buds in multic­elluar can detach through repeated mitosis and form separate org.
frag.
part of multic­elluar breaks off due to injury and becomes separate org.
vegeta­tive.
stems, leaves, or roots are used to asex. repro.
spore
spores grow into new org.

Cancer (from mutations in cell cycle)

Cancer cells have large nuclei, no use, they attract blood vessels and become tumours, and can metast­asize
 

MITOSIS

prophase
nuclear membrane disapp­ears, fibres attach to centro­meres
metaphase
chromes align on equator
anaphase
fibers pull sister chromatids to poles
telophase
fibres disappear and membrane reforms around each set
(cytok­inesis)
cell contents are divided into 2 cells
cleavage furrow or cell plate

Embryo Develop (first 8 wks)

morula
end of week one
ball of cells
blastula
end of week two
hollow ball of cells, cell can develop to any kind
gastrula
3 distinct layers of cells (DIF­FER­ENT­IAT­ION)
ecto: skin/ nerves, mes: muscle­s/b­ones, end: lungs/­liv­er/­dig­estive system lining

Asexual v. Sexual

lots of offspring quickly, large colo­nies can form to out-co­mpete, lots=many may survive if conditions change, less energy
diseas­e/m­ute­=death, compete for food and space, bad condit­ion­=wiped out
genetic diversity, ext: little energy to mate, more offspring can exist after disaster, int: more protect and care
int: more energy­/risk to mate, fewer produced, ext: gams,e­mbryos, offs are unprotect
 

Fertil­iza­tion: Pros and Cons

external
very little energy mate, lots of offspring, spread widely in evrionment (less comp.)
many gametes die, many eggs aren't fertil­ized, offspring are unprot­ected
internal
embryo protected, offspr­ing's parents will protect
more energy, fewer zygotes, more energy to raise

Fetal Devlopment

differ­ent­iation
formation of organs­/tissue from gastrula
1st tri
0-12 wks
develo­pment of all organ systems
2nd tri
12-24
rapid growth (12-16); fetal movements felt
3rd tri
24-38
continued growth (bra­in)

MEIOSIS

prophase
spindle fibres form and push centris. to poles, homolo chromo­somes are paired
cross over
metaphase
homolo chromo­somes align on 2 sides of equator
anaphase
homolo chromosome pairs separate to opposite poles
assort
telophase
2 nuclei form, after 2 cells form

Stages of Sexual Repro.

mating
egg and sperm come together at same time and place
fertil­ization
gametes fuse to make zygote
develo­pment
embryo develops

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