concept of time
monochronic- time is given and people are variables, people do one thing at a time and finish it before starting something else.
polychronic-time is the servant and tool of people, people do several things simultaneously, required by the circumstances.
individual, direct, low-context, non-agrarian societies are usually monochromatic. The other, polychromatic.
high uncertainty avoidance- people with this have anxiety about the unknown so they try to control life. they have many laws, regulations, rules, and procedures and emphasize it must be obeyed.
low uncertainty avoidance- people with this have low anxiety and are less threatened by the unknown and uncertain. there is less government involvement and they tolerate differences fairly well.
high & low power distance
high power distance- these cultures believe that inequalities in power and status are natural. those with power emphasize it and do not share it.
low power distance- these cultures think that inequalities in power and status is largely fake. those with power deemphasize it and share power as much a possible.
culture shock and integration stages
1. initial enthusiasm (honeymoon)- happens during the first week or two in a country and the attitude towards the country is generally positive.
2. initial country & culture shock- within the first few weeks, more realistic and mixed reactions.
3. initial adjustment- happens after several weeks, some aspects of the country & culture now seem normal.
4. further culture shock- in the first few months, you experience withdraw and more obstacles to overcome.
5. further adjustment- happens after settling-in, you adapt and understand the culture better.
sources of culture
religion- whatever religion a country had, they will carry the same ideology when establishing their culture and values in their government documents, laws, and norms.
geography- the earliest imprints of a country is affected by their location, which includes dangers, risks, safety, isolation as well as (un)limited resources and opportunity.
attitude- countries that start after any form of repression will establish their law and values with the mind of not repeating their previously experienced history.
individual personality- citizens of a country will share common characteristics (hard working, distant, kind, etc) based on the historical events of that country.
the four levels of cultural awareness
I. unconscious incompetence- the first state when you are unaware of cultural differences.
II. conscious incompetence- when you realize there are differences and things you don't understand.
III. conscious competence- you know some cultural differences and adjust your behavior to replace your old instincts with new ones.
IV. unconscious competence- the last state when appropriate behavior is now automatic and you are reconditioned by the new culture.
this is the cycle of adjustment when your awareness of a new country & culture naturally increases.
personal and social obligations
universalism- there are no exception for anyone and everyone and every situation must be treated the same without bias.
particularism- it all depends on the circumstances and how is involved, life is not fair and exceptions are always made.
no culture is completely universal or particular, but the culture as a whole tends toward one side.
stage 1: denial- this is when someone doesn't believe in cultural differences and impose their values onto others.
stage 2: defense- the person believes in cultural differences now but view other cultures negatively and inferior to their own.
stage 3: minimization- now they don't think that those who are different are inferior, but rather that the differences are not significant. they trivialize differences and believe people are more similar than dissimilar.
stage 4: acceptance- the person accepts differences as being deep and legitimate, they are more tolerant to other's differences and are neutral about differences.
stage 5: adaptation and integration- the person becomes positive about differences and are willing to adjust their own behaviors to conform to different norms, these people are known as bicultural or multicultural.
degree of control
internal control- the person controls their own life and there are no limits on what they can do if they focus and make effort.
external control- the person does not have control over their life, some aspects are already decided and there are limits on what they can do.
source of status
achieved status- is a doing culture, status does not come from birth, age, rank, or seniority.
ascribed status- is a being culture, statues is already established and where on is born, family, and social class matter.
Related to power distance as well as individualism and collectivism.
gestures and body language
percent of communication through words
percent of communication in voice (tone, volume, etc.)
percent of communication in body language (non-verbal)
percent of emotion that in non-verbal
styles of communication
direct and low context- these cultures tend to be individualistic and monochromatic, the society is very mixed so nothing can be assumed.
indirect and high context- these cultures tend to be collective and homogenous, indirect and nonverbal communication is much more important.