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Science - Staying Alive Cheat Sheet by

science

Food in the body

Name
Uses
 
Found in
Water
Regulates Distrib. Removes
temp. nutrients. waste products.
Fruit Vegetables Dairy
Fibre
Adds ...to... Prevents
bulk faeces. consti­pation
Plants
Carbs
Provides Stores
energy. energy.
Grains
Lipids
Provides Produces Digests
energy. hormones. and absorbs foods
Dairy Animal Products
Protein
Building muscles, skin, hair and
bones, cartilage, blood nails
Meat
Vitamins
Depends
on the
vitamin
Minerals
Building bones Transmi nerve
strong as well as tting impulses
minerals

Enzymes

Enzymes are chemicals that speed up chemical reactions.
- Carboh­ydrase – breaks carboh­ydrate into smaller sugars.
- Protease – breaks protein into amino acids.
- Lipase – breaks fat into fatty acids and glycerol.

Digestive Juices

Respon­sib­ilities of blood

Blood is respon­sible for:
• Transp­orting gases (Oxygen, Carbon dioxide)
• Transp­orting water
• Transp­orting Nutrients
• Transp­orting Wastes
• Delivering immune cells to fight disease
• Transp­orting heat

Respir­atory System

 

Obesity

Diseases associated with obesity

• High blood pressure
• Athero­scl­erosis
• Cardio­vas­cular disease
• Stroke
• Some cancers
- Breast
- Endome­trial
- Colon
• Type 2 diabetes

The recomm­ended daily intake of kilo-j­oules for an adult - 8700

Factors that increase the risk of obesity:
- Genetics (Obese parentage)
- Eating more kilojoules than you use
- Inactivity (Exercise)
- Modern living (Cars, computers)
- Socioe­conomic factors (Money and Education)

Cellular respir­ation

Cellular respir­ation is the process of taking in oxygen to produce energy, water and carbon dioxide.
The role of the circul­atory system is to carry oxygen to tissues, wastes away from tissues and nutrients water and heat around the body.

Blood in the heart

From the body
Superi­or/­Inf­erior Vena Cava
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Pulmonary Artery
Lungs
Carbon Dioxide out/Oxygen in
Pulmonary Veins
Left Atrium
Left Ventricle
Aorta
To the Body

What is in our breath

Gas
% in inhaled air
% in exhaled air
Difference
Nitrogen
78
78.5
+0.5
Oxygen
21
14
-7
Carbon Dioxide
<1
5.6
+5.5
Water Vapour
Varying
100
100

Inhalation and Exhalation

Inhala­tion. Ribcage moves outward and the lungs expand, Air moves in, Diaphragm moves down, volume of chest cavity increases, interc­ostal muscles contract, decreases pressure in chest cavity.

Exhala­tion, ribcage moves inward and the lungs contract, air moves out, diaphragm moves up, volume of chest cavity decreases, interc­ostal muscles expand, increases pressure in chest cavity.

Breathing out is called relaxing, breathing in is called contra­cting.
 

Food testing

Component
Descri­ption
Reagent
Positive Result
Sugar
Add 10 drops reagent 80oc for 5 min
Benedicts Solution
Cloudy red
Starch
Add 3 drops reagent
Iodine
Purple­-Black with residue
Protein
Add 10 drops NaOH And 10 drops CaSo4
Biurets (NaOH + CaSo4)
Change in colour
Fat
Rub sample on brown paper
Brown Paper
Sinks into paper

Digestive System

Components of cells

Components
Descri­ption
Function
Amount
White blood cells
Invisible unless stained
Immune cells
1%
Red blood cells
1/4 size of white blood cell
Carry oxygen around the body,
44%
Plasma
Liquid portion of blood
Where carbon dioxide is dissolved.
54%
Platelets
Cell fragment
Help clot the blood
1%

Heart

Breathing

In the lungs, oxygen travels to thousands of tiny air sacs called alveoli.
These are covered in capill­aries, The increased surface area-b­ecause of these tiny air sacs- paired with thin walls, increase the rate of gas diffusion into/from the capill­aries

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