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Sexual and Asexual Reproduction Cheat Sheet by

Sexual and Asexual Reproduction (Chen, Science 9)
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Asexual Reprod­uction

Cell Cycle
How eukaryotic cells divide asexually
Binary Fission
How prokar­yotic cells divide asexually
Spore Formation
Parent cell produces spores that grow and develop under favourable conditions (i.e. yeast)
DNA Replic­ation
DNA replic­ates, unwinds with the help of an enzyme, then attaches to a new base
DNA Location
Nucleus; in the form of chromatin
Nucleotide Pattern
AxT, CxG
Stages of Cell Cycle
Interp­hase, Mitosis, Cytoki­nesis
Asexual Reprod­uction Disadv­antages
Negative mutati­ons/bad conditions can wipe out colonies; offspring can compete for food/space
Asexual Reprod­uction Advantages
Lots of offspring, quickly; Colonies can form quickly and compete with others; No energy to find a mate

Sexual Reprod­uction

Sexual Reprod­uction Advantages
Genetic variety; ext. means little energy used to find a mate; Intrnl. means protection given to embryo­/zygote
Sexual Reprod­uction Disadv­antages
Intrnl.= more energy to find a mate; Intrnl.=less offspring; ext.= gamete­s/e­mbr­yos­/zy­gotes aren't protected
Gametes
Use meiosis to reproduce; have 23 chromo­somes; are sex cells
Morula
Embryo at the end of week 1; a ball of cells
Blastula
embryo at the end of week 2; hollow ball of cells; these cells turn into gastrula later
Gastrula
3 layers of cells: ectoderm (skin/­ner­ves), mesoderm (muscl­e/b­ones), endoderm (lungs­/li­ver­/di­gestive system lining)
Differ­ent­iation
Formation of organs and tissues from the cell layers of gastrula
Meiosis
How gametes reproduce; makes 4 cells
Embryo
The stage of a multi-­cel­lular organism that develops from a zygote
Embryonic Develo­pment
The early develo­pment of an organism
Homologous Chromo­somes
A pair of matching chromo­somes (eye color, skin colour, etc.)
Fertil­ization
When an egg cell is penetrated by a sperm cell and the haploid genetic inform­ation of both male and female gametes combines
Angios­perms
Flowering plants that have seeds protected by an ovary or fruit
Gymnos­perms
A plant with seeds unprot­ected by an ovary or fruit (i.e. conifers)
Crossing Over
Chromatids of chromo­somes pairs cross over and exchange DNA segments, producing genetic variation (during prophase I)
Indepe­ndent Assortment
Homologous pairs separate indepe­nde­ntly, creating different combin­ations of chromo­somes in the daughter cells (during Metaphase I)
 

Genes

Gene Mutation
Substi­tution, deletion, addition; mutagens or viruses can cause them
Genetic Disorders
A disease caused by failed separation of chromo­somes in Meiosis
Karyotype
How geneti­cists view someone's chromo­somes
 

Stages of Meiosis

Meiosis I
Homologous chromo­somes are involved
Prophase I
Spindle fibres form, pushing centrioles apart; nuclear membra­ne/­nucleus dissolves; homologous chromo­somes pair; crossing over occurs
Metaphase I
Spindle fibres guide chromo­somes to the equator of the cell; homologous pairs line up on 2 sides of the equator
Anaphase I
Homologous pairs separate to opposite poles of the cell
Telophase I
2 nuclei­/nu­clear membrane forms; spindle fibres disappear; one chromosome from each homologous pair is at each pole of the cell
Meiosis II
2 cells separate again, resulting in 4 cells
Prophase II
Spindle fibres form; nuclear membra­ne/­nucleus dissolves; There is 1 homologous pair in the cell (2 chromo­somes in total)
Metaphase II
X-shaped chromo­somes form 1 line at the equator of the cell
Anaphase II
Sister chromatids move to opposite poles of cell; sister chromatids are now considered a chromosome
Telophase II
Spindle fibres disappear; nuclear membranes form around each set of chromo­somes

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