Content vs. Process
Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” perspective.
Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals.
Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” perspective.
Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs.
Content: Incentive Theory
Employee will increase effort to obtain a reward
Based on principle of reinforcement
Outcome is usually money
Based on theory that man is rational, based on 'economic man'
Content: Herzbergs Two Factor Theory
create dissatisfaction if individuals perceive them as inadequate or inequitable, yet individuals will not be significantly motivated if these factors are viewed as adequate or good. Salery, job security, working conditions
intrinsic factors such as sense of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth.
Hygiene factors determine dissatisfaction
Motivators determine satisfaction
Content: Maslow Hierarchy of Needs
According to this theory, individual strives to seek a higher need when lower needs are fulfilled.
1st physiological needs
Basic survival needs, such as air, water and food.
2nd safety needs
personal security, health, well-being and safety
Sense of belonging and acceptance. Relationships, families and friendship.
4th self-esteem needs
Be respected / self respect
5th self-actualization needs
Heirarchy of needs diagram
Content: Alderfers ERG Theory
Physiological and Safety needs are merged in Existence Needs,
Belonging needs is named as Relatedness Needs,
Self-esteem and Self-actualization needs are merged in Growth Needs
Growth, Relatedness, Existence
Content: McClellands Achievement Need Theory
Three basic needs that people develop and acquire from their life experiences .
Needs for achievement
Seeks achievement and tries to attain challenging goals. Strong need for feedback as to achievement and progress, and a need for a sense of accomplishment
Needs for affiliation
High need for affiliation needs harmonious relationships
Needs for power:
Wants to direct and command other people
Although these categories of needs are not exlusive, generally individuals develop a dominant bias or emphasis towards one of the three needs. Entrepreneurs usually have high degree of achivement needs.
Process: Adams Equity Theory
If individual feels rewards are fair then they feel satisfied.
Adams says employees seek to maintain equity between the inputs that they bring to a job and the outcomes recieved.
Measure against the perceived inputs and outcomes of others.
Process: Expectancy Theory
Expectancy: E -> P
belief that effort (E) will result in attainment of desired performance (P) goals.
Instrumentality: P -> R
belief of reward (R) if performance (P) expectation is met
Value of the reward according to the person
Suggests human behaviour is directed by subjective probability.
Process: Goal Theory
Proposes motivation and performance high if goals are challenging, but accepted, and feedback is given.
Two important findings:
Setting specific goals
= higher performance than general goals
The goals that are hard to achieve
are linearly and positively connected to performance. The harder the goal, the more a person will work to reach it.