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Physical Ergonomics1 Cheat Sheet by

ergonomics

Planes and direction words

Frontal plane
- Ventral - front
- Dorsal - back

Sagittal plane
- Dexter - right
- Sinister - left

Transverse plane
- cranial
- caudal

Example direction terms

The lungs are cranial with respect to the intestines

Movements frontal plane

Abduction
away from body
Adduction
towards body

Movements sagittal plane

Flexion
bending
Extension
stretching

Movements transv­ersal plane

Exorot­ation
rotating outwards
Endoro­tation
rotating inwards
 

Movement shoulder girdle

Elevat­ion­/de­pre­ssion
liftin­g/s­acking shoulders
Frontal plane
Protra­cti­on/­ret­raction
Shoulder to front/back
Transv­ersal plane

Movement shoulder

Abduct­ion­/Ad­duction
Arm towards midline
Frontal plane
Antefl­exi­on/­ret­rof­lexion
Arms forwar­ds/­bac­kwards
Sagittal plane
Exo/en­dor­otation
Fanning arm in/out­wards
Transv­ersal plane

Movement elbow

Flexio­n/e­xte­nsion

Movement elbow/­rad­io-­ulnar joint

Pro/su­pin­ation
Turning hand down/up

Note

With supination in the elbow joint, the Radius and Ulnar are both straight, while with pronation (hand down) the Ulnar moves under the Radius

Movement wrist

Palmar­/dorsal flexion
wapperen
Radial­/ulnar abduction
zwaaien

Movement spine

Flexio­n/e­xte­nsion
bowing
Latero­flexion
wiggeling
Rotation

Movement toes

Flexio­n/e­xte­nsion
toes down/up
ab/add­uction
outwar­ds/­inwards
 

Terms indicating direction

Medial
Closer towards midline
Lateral
Further away from midline
Proximal
(Limbs) closer towards navel
Distal
(Limbs) further from navel
Radial
(Arm) towards thumb side
Ulnar
(Arm) towards pinky side
Dorsal
(Hand) back of hand
Palmar
(Hand) palm of hand
Dorsal
(foot) top of foot
Plantar
(foot) sole of foot

Examples direction words

The shoulder is lateral with respect to the nipple

The index finger is radial with respect to the ring finger

Movement hips

Ante/r­etr­ofl­exion
lifting the leg
Sagittal plane
Ab/add­uction
Going in split (away/­tow­ards)
Frontal plane
Exo/en­dor­otation

Movement knee

Flexio­n/e­xte­nsion
Exo/en­dor­otation
only with flexed leg

Ankle movement

Dorsal­/pl­antar flexion
tighte­nin­g/p­ointing foot
talocrural joint
Pro/su­pin­ation
moving inner up/outer up
subtalar joint

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