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MCPIV DRUG LIST 1 Cheat Sheet by

antibiotics     pharmacology

B-LACTAMS

PENICI­LLINS
CARBAP­ENEMS
CEPHAL­OSP­ORINS
MONOBA­CTAMS
GLYCOP­EPTIDES
Tetr­acy­cli­nes – impairs the bacter­icidal effects of B-lactams

PENICI­LLINS

MOA
Bind to transp­ept­idases and block cross-­linking of peptid­oglycan residues resulting in weak cell walls and bacterial lysis in bacteria that are actively growing
PK
Excreted really
Penetr­ation into the eye, prostate, and CNS is poor,
Absorption impaired by food­-take 1-2 hrs before or after meal to prevent protein binding, acid inactivation
AE
Hypers­ens­iti­vity, anaphy­laxis, super infect­ions, diarrhea, convul­sions (high dose, renal failure, epileptic pts) , hematolgic toxici­ties, nephritis, cation toxicity

PENICI­LLINS

PENICILLIN G
Unstable in acidic pH, given IV over IM
More active against gram-n­egative organisms (i.e., Neisseria) than penicillin V.
PENICILLIN V
More resistant to acid
Peni­cillin G procaine and Peni­cillin G benzat­hine (i.m.) - formulated to delay absorp­tion, resulting in prolonged blood and tissue concen­tra­tions.

ANTI-S­TAP­HYL­OCOCCAL PENICI­LLINS

METHIC­ILLIN
No longer used in US
NAFCILLIN
Excreted biliary
OXACILLIN
Excreted by kidney and biliary
DICLOXACILLIN
Excreted by kidney and biliary
CLOXAC­ILLIN
Excreted by kidney and biliary
Indi­cat­ions: MSSA, MSSE, Bone, joint, urinary tract, skin, endoca­rditis, meningitis
 

AMINOP­ENI­CILLIN (EXTEN­DED­-SP­ECTRUM)

AMPICILLIN
UTI, sinusitis, otitis, lower respir­atory tract infections
AMOXIC­ILLIN
Indi­cat­ions: Respir­atory infect­ions, UTI, skin, bacterial mening­itis, septic­emia, endoca­rditis, GI infections (typhoid fever, dysentery)


More expensive

ANTI-P­SEU­DOMONAL (UREID­O-P­ENI­CILLIN)

CARBEN­ICILLIN
No longer used in US
PIPERA­CILLIN
Most potent
TICARC­ILLIN
PIPERA­CIL­LIN­-TA­ZOB­ACTAM
TICARC­ILL­IN-­CLA­VULANIC ACID
Indi­cat­ions: Follic­ulitis, osteom­yel­itis, endoca­rditis, UTI, respir­atory tract, wounds, bacter­emia, CNS

Formul­ation of ticarc­illin and pipera­cillin with β-lact­amase inhibitors (formu­lation with clavulanic acid or tazoba­ctum, respec­tiv­ely), extends the antimi­crobial spectrum to include penici­lli­nas­e-p­rod­ucing organisms

NOTES PENICI­LLINS

PROBENICID
Increases serum levels of penici­llins
NAFCILLIN
Only one not excreted renally
AMOXIC­ILLIN
Only one that doesn't undergo acid inacti­vation (absor­ption not impaired by food)

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