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Tort Law Cheat Sheet by

law     tort

Intent­ional Torts

battery
intent­ional contact
 
uncons­ented/ unpriv­ileged
 
harmful or offensive- intent to harm or offend
assault
intent to harm/ offend through fear
 
appreh­ension of imminent battery
 
appreh­ension of fear results
false impris­onment
words or acts intended to confine within a fixed space
 
actual confin­ement
 
awareness of confin­ement or harm
trespass to land
intent to enter
 
actual entrance
conversion
intent to exercise substa­ntial dominion
 
exercising dominion
trespass to chattels
intent to interfere with chattel
 
actual interf­erence with use or enjoyment
 
harm results

Defenses to intent­ional torts

self defense
affirm­ative defense for a real threat
 
words do not allow self defense
defense of property
cannot use excessive force
 
human life > property
consent
look at situation
 
no need to articulate consent
 
consent negates intent
necessity
apparent necessity
 
purpose (balancing test)
 
no other option
 

Negligence

Duty
reasonable standard of care
 
exception for physical but not mental disability
 
negligence per se (satisfies duty and breach)
Breach of Duty
Assessing forese­eable risks and costs
 
Assessing reasonable care
 
risk utility analysis
 
Evaluating conduct/ custom
 
Res Ipsa
Actual Damages
medical expenses
 
lost earnings
 
future earnings
 
pain and suffering
 
punitive
Actual cause
but-for test
 
cause contribute to the accident
Proximate cause
Scope of the risk
 
Is the type of injury within the risk
 
is type of risk forese­eable ?
 
substa­ntial factor
 
direct connection
 
remoteness in time and space
 
**Inte­rvening persons or forces

Defenses to negligence

Contri­butory negligence
completely bars recovery
Compar­ative fault
Jury determines how negligent
Interest of Public Policy
Duty to Protect
 
Knowledge of Situation and P vulner­ability
 
Creates risk to self
Assumption of the risk
express or contra­ctual
 
implied assumption of the risk
 
primary assumption of the risk

Special Duty- Landowner

what's their status
trespasser
 
invitee
 
licensee
conditions v. activities
no need to warn of natural condition
 
do need to warn of unexpected conditions
trespa­ssing child
attractive nuisance
 
dangerous instru­men­tality
 
open and obvious

Nonfeasace

No duty to act
unless you create harm

Duty to protect from third party

defendant relati­onship with plaintiff
special relati­onship?
duty of landowner/ common carrier
specific harm
 
prior similar incidents
 
totality of circum­stances
 
balancing test
Defendant relati­onship with dangerous third party
special relati­onship?
 
directly and forese­eably exposed
 
therapist duty to warn of impending danger

Emotional Harm

Negligent Infliction of Emotional Distress
zone of danger
 
direct victim v. bystander
 
harm resulting from injury to another

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