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Chromosomal Basis of Heredity Cheat Sheet by

biology     genetics     meiosis     heredity     chromosome

Meiosis I

Prophase I
Chromo­somes condense, homologous pairs align, syna­psis (precise alignment, ensires 1 copy of each gene in a daughter cell). Synapsed set called a tetrad (4 chroma­tids). Then, cros­sin­g-o­ver occurs (exchange of chromosome segments between pairs of homol­ogous chromo­somes, or nonsister chroma­tids). Chia­sma forms, visible structure from crossover. X and Y chromo­somes pair and synapse thru terminal ends (PARs).
2N
Metaphase I
Nucleoli and envelope broken down, centroiles w/ spinde entern­uclear area, kinet­echore microt­ubules attach to sister kineto­chores, tetrads align at metaphase plate.
2N
Anaphase I
Chromo­somes of tetrad separate (now dyad­s). Sister chromatids remain attached at centro­meres. DNA content is halved.
2N-N
Telophase I
Spindles dissas­emble, cytoki­nesis forms two hapl­oid cells.
N
 

Meiosis

Meiosis II

Prophase II
Chromo­somes condense and spindles form, kineto­chores attach to tubules..
Metaphase II
Alignment on metaphase plate.
Anaphase II
Centro­meres separate, daughter chromo­somes (still haploid) pulled to opposite sides.
Telophase II
Chromo­somes decond­ense, nuclear envelope forms, cytoki­nesis. Four haploid cells produced, each with one chromosome from each homologous pair.
 

Meiosis Results

Generates haploid nuclei with half the number of chromo­somes found in diploid cell. (2N -> N) Diploid number restored in fertil­iza­tion.
Inde­pendent assortment of genes paternal and maternal chromo­somes have an equal chance of aligning on one side of metaphase plate.
Number of chromosome arrang­ements is 2n-1, n= # chromo­somes pairs (haploid number).
Number of chromosome combin­ations resulting from indep­endent assort­ment is 2n (number of different gamet­es).
Number of kinds of genotypes is 3n.

Ploidy

Haploid
ONE copy of each chromo­some. (N)
Diploid
TWO copies (homol­ogues) of each chromo­some. (2N)
Homologous pairs
Same gene loci, structure, and pair during meiosis.

Genes

Allele
Altern­ative forms of a single gene on the same locus that determine the same trait, but can produce different phenot­ypes.

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Comments

TME520 TME520, 01:26 19 Oct 17

Informative cheat sheet, well worth reading. It would be easier to understand if you included a short dictionary.

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