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SS COMER Cheat Sheet by

spanish
spn1121

preret­irite of stem-c­hanging verbs

yo
-i
tu
-iste
ud/el/ella
o st-ch
nosotr­os/as
-imos
vosotr­os/as
-isteis
uds/el­los­/ellas
-eron st-ch
stem changes in PR go from:
e>i or o>u
stem changes in PR happen:
in third person singular and plural
stem changes in PR only happen:
in -ir stem changing verbs, not in -ar or -er

irregular compar­itives and superl­atives

adje­cti­ves
bueno/a
good
malo/a
bad
grande
big; old
pequeno/a
small; young
joven
young
viejo/a
old
comp­ara­tive
mejor
better
peor
worse
mayor
older
menor
younger
supe­rla­tive
el/la mejor
the best
el/la peor
the worst
el/la mayor
the oldest
el/la menor
the youngest
 

double object pronouns

direct and indirect object pronouns
replace nouns
indirect object pronouns singular:
me, te, le (se)
indirect object pronouns plural:
nos, os, les (se)
direct object pronouns
lo, la, los, las
if object pronouns are used together
indirect before direct pronoun
indirect ojbect pronouns le and les
always change when coming before all direct pronouns
se can be clarified by
subject pronouns in third tenses
double object pronouns (DOP­s):
are to be placed before a conjugated verb
with infini­tives and present partic­iples, double object pronouns can:
be placed before conjugated verb or attatched to the end
accent marks
added to maintain stress in DOPs attatched to infini­tives and present partic­iples

tidbits to compare and superb

when grande and pequeno/a refer to age,
use the irre­gular comp/super forms, mayor/­menor
when grande and pequeno/a refer to size,
use regular forms mas grande/mas pequeno/a.
bien and mal
have same compar­ative forms as bueno/a and malo/a.
 

saber and conocer

saber means
know­ing a fact or facts, pieces of inform­ation, or knowing how to do something.
conocer means
to be fami­liar with; expresses famili­arity or acquai­ntance (or lack thereof) with a person, place, or thing.

saber and conocer conjug­ation

saber
conocer
yo
se
cono­zco
tu
sabes
conoces
ud/el/ella
sabe
conoce
nosotr­os/as
sabemos
conocemos
vosotr­os/as
sabeis
conoceis
uds/el­los­/ellas
saben
conocen

tidbits to know

when direct object of conocer is a pers­on/­pet, the personal a is used.
the yo forms of saber and conocer are irregular in the present tense.

verbs that have the '-zco' like conocer

ofrecer (to offer)
ofrezco
paracer (to seem)
parezco
conducir (to drive)
conduzco, -cimos, -cis
traducir (to translate)
traduzco, -cimos, -cis
conductir and traducir are -ir verbs, so they differ in their nos- and vos- forms.
 

compar­atives, superl­atives

compar­isons of inequality are formed
by placing mas or menos before adverbs, adject­ives, or nouns, and que after them.
compar­isons with numerical values
use de before the number being used.
verbs with compar­isons of inequality
[verb] + mas/menos que
mas (que)
more (than)
menos (que)
less (than)
compar­isons of equality are formed
tan + [adv,adj] + como
compar­isons of equality are formed
tant­o/a­(s) + [sing. noun, plur.noun] + como
verbs with compar­isons of equality
formed by placing tanto como after the verb (tanto does not conform to number or gender)
tanto como
as much as

superl­atives

el/la/­los/las + [noun] + mas/menos + [adjec­tive] + de
definite article oversh­adows the noun
de = in or of
noun can be ommitted if it is clear to who/what superl­ative refers to
absolute superl­ati­ves ends in -isimo, which is equivalent to extrem­ely­/very + [adj or adv]. sp-ch

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