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Wetenschapsfilosofie Engels Overzicht Cheat Sheet by

Wetenschapsfilosofie Engels
wetenschapsfilosofie     engels

Extern­alism (Leonard Bloomf­ield):

Primary phenom­ena: Actual utterances as produced by language users
Primary subject matter: Language use; structural properties of expres­sions and languages
Aim: To describe attested expression structure and interr­ela­tions, and predicting properties of unattested expres­sions
Ling­uistic struct­ure: A system of patterns, inferrable from generally access­ible, objective features of language use
Valu­es: Accurate modeling of linguistic form that accords with empirical data and permits prediction concerning uncons­idered cases
Chil­dren's langua­ge: A nascent form of language, very different from adult linguistic competence
What is acquir­ed: A grasp of the distri­but­ional properties of the consti­tuents of expres­sions of a language

Emerge­ntism (Edward Sapir)

Primary phenom­ena: Facts of social cognition, intera­ction, and commun­ication
Primary subject matter: Linguistic commun­ica­tion, cognition, variation, and change
Aim: To explain structural properties of languages in terms of general cognitive mechanisms and commun­icative functions
Ling­uistic struct­ure: A system of constr­uctions that range from fixed idiomatic phrases to highly abstract productive types
Valu­es: Cognitive, cultural, histor­ical, and evolut­ionary explan­ations of phenomena found in linguistic commun­ication systems
Chil­dren's langua­ge: A series of stages in an ontoge­netic process of developing adult commun­icative competence
What is acquir­ed: A mainly conven­tional and culturally transm­itted system for linguistic commun­ication

Essent­ialism (Noam Chomsky)

Primary phenom­ena: Intuitions of gramma­tic­ality and literal meaning
Primary subject matter: Abstract universal principles that explain the properties of specific languages
Aim: To articulate universal principles and providing explan­ations for deep and cross-­lin­gui­sti­cally constant linguistic properties
Ling­uistic struct­ure: A system of abstract conditions that may not be evident from the experience of typical language users
Valu­es: Highly abstract, coveri­ng-law explan­ations for properties of language as inferred from linguistic intuitions
Chil­dren's langua­ge: Very similar to adult linguistic competence though obscured by cognitive, articu­latory, and lexical limits
What is acquir­ed: An intern­alized generative device that charac­terizes an infinite set of expres­sions

Week 2

Indi­­vi­d­u­al: strictly a property of individual human beings, not groups or commun­­ities.
Inte­­rn­al: meaning is internal and a language is a state your mind/brain is in.
Inte­­ns­i­o­nal: a language is a specific procedure, generating infinitely many expres­­sions of that language.
Exte­­ns­i­o­nal: resear­­ch­-­based on attested utterances or extens­­io­nally definable objects.
Exte­­rnal: view that conceives of a language as a public, inters­­ub­jec­tively accessible system used by a community of people.

Comp­­et­e­n­ce: what knowing a language confers, a grasp of all sentences
Perf­­or­m­a­nce: real-time use of a language

- Corpus Collec­tion: gathering a body of naturally occurring uttera­nces.
- Cont­rolled Experi­men­tat­ion: testing informants in some way that directly gauges their linguistic capaci­ties.
- Informal Elicit­ati­on: asking an informant for a metali­ngu­istic judgment on an expression ➝ most widely used and critic­ized.

Ordinal scale: a partial ordering equiva­­lence in accept­­ab­ility or ranking in degree of unacce­­pt­a­b­ility.
Interval scale: a measure of distance between ordinal positions.

Week 3

Labov’s Princi­ples: the consensus principle, the experi­menter principle, the clear case principle
Corpus collec­tion: gathering a body of naturally occurring utterances
Whor­fia­nism: one's language determines one's conception of the world
phen­otype vs. crypto­type: overt and covert gramma­­tical catego­­ries
weak vs. strong hypoth­esis: language dete­­rm­i­nes OR infl­uen­ces thought
language acquis­iti­on: all three approaches agree that some unlearned capacities are necessary to learn language.
general vs. linguistic nativi­sts: languages are acquired mainly through inductive methods versus language cannot be acquired by defeasible inductive methods, its structural principles must to a very large degree be unlearned

Week 4

Stru­ctu­ral­ism: the shift from diachronic (histo­rical) to synchronic (non-h­ist­orical) analysis, studies of associ­ations
De Saussu­re: father of modern lingui­stics
Lary­ngeal theory: system including number of phonemes, usually called laryng­eals, of which the various IE dialects other than the Anatolian languages show no direct reflexes
Object of lingui­sti­cs: the language (Sauss­ure’s ‘langue’) as an abstract system

Lang­age: universal system which has an underl­ying, fundam­ental, structure so that linguistic commun­ication can work.
Lang­ue: the actual language spoken, e.g. French, German or English.
Paro­le: the individual speech act.

Sign­ifi­ed: the concept part
Sign­ifi­er: the sound-­image part
Sign: designates this whole relati­onship
The principle of arbitr­ari­ness: there is no direct connection between the sound-­­image and the concept;

Sign­­if­i­c­at­­ion: concerns the (vertical) relation between a signifier and its signified;
Value: concerns the (horiz­­ontal) relation between signifieds & signifiers

Synt­­ag­matic relati­­ons: rela­tions between elements that are combined within one larger system; these relations define the possible combin­­ations of elements (their distri­­bu­tion) at various levels (word, sentence); “The syntag­­matic relation is in praese­­nt­i­a.”
Asso­­ci­ative relati­­ons: relations between elements that have a common associ­­ation (to teach, teacher, pupil etc.); terms in an associ­­ative family; “the associ­­ative relation unites term in absent­­ia”.

• Prague School ➝ inaugu­ration of phonology; Linguistic Circle of Copenhagen ➝ glosse­matics; American struct­uralism ➝ start from scratch

Week 5

Gene­rat­ivi­sm: languages are systems with limited sets of lingui­stics item out of which we can generate endless number of sentences (Chomsky)
Stru­ctural lingui­sti­cs: method of synchronic linguistic analysis employing struct­ura­lism, especially in contra­sting those formal struct­ures, such as phonemes or sentences, that make up systems, such as phonology or syntax. (Saussure)
Desc­riptive lingui­sti­cs: the study of the descri­ption of the internal phonol­ogical, gramma­tical, and semantic structures of languages at given points in time without reference to their histories or to one another
Univ­ersal grammar: the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain.

A string of words is gramma­tical if it follows the principles of grammar of a language, ungr­amm­ati­cal if it does not. According to Chomsky, gramma­tical sentences should be judged as approp­riate sentences of a language by native speakers of the language.

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